An experimental study of GFRP-to-concrete interfaces submitted to humidity cycles, Biscaia, Hugo C., Silva Manuel A. G., and Chastre Carlos , Composite Structures, 4//, Volume 110, Issue April, p.354-368, (2014) AbstractWebsite

Systems externally reinforced by bonded fibre reinforced polymers (FRP) are widely used in the retrofitting and strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. A drawback of the usage of this technique lies on the uncertainty of the long term behaviour of those reinforcements. Researchers have paid heed to this aspect and a number of tests and alternative techniques have recently been described. An experimental programme developed to supplement work of the authors recently published and which focused on specimens not submitted to aggressive environments is described. The specimens used have the same geometry as in the previous paper, but they were exposed to salt fog cycles and dry/wet cycles with salt water for periods of 3000 h, 5000 h and 10,000 h. The interface of the glass fiber polymeric composite (GFRP)-to-concrete was characterized after the systems underwent such aggressive conditions. The GFRP wrap comprised of two layers and wet lay-up technique was used on its preparation and application. The cohesion and friction angle for GFRP-to-concrete interfaces were measured tat selected stages of ageing process and envelope failure laws were obtained based on the Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion. Changes of 27% in cohesion and 8% in the friction angle were found due to the attack of the interface and consequences of the changes are examined.

Modelling GFRP-to-concrete joints with interface finite elements with rupture based on the Mohr-Coulomb criterion, Biscaia, Hugo C., Chastre Carlos, and Silva Manuel A. G. , Construction and Building Materials, 10//, Volume 47, p.261-273, (2013) AbstractWebsite

The strengthening of reinforced concrete structures by means of externally bonded fibre reinforced polymers (FRPs) is now routinely considered and applied in the retrofit or strengthening of structures. FRP composites have received a considerable attention from civil engineers in recent years due to the high strength-weight and stiffness/weight ratios when compared to other materials. However, when FRP composites are bonded to a concrete surface, there is a persistent potential problem that the FRP plates may debond prematurely from the concrete. This is a very important issue for the engineers who have to focus on the computational modelling of this phenomenon. Some studies can be found in literature on computational modelling. However, there is very little information about the best modelling of the interface between FRP composites and concrete and this work is intended to help bridge this gap. The computational analysis presented here is based on three-dimensional software which assumes the smeared crack model, and the interface finite elements (FEs) used have a rupture criteria based on the Mohr-Coulomb criterion with tension cut-off. The definition of these FEs was based on double shear tests that were performed specifically for this purpose and they have shown that the debonding phenomenon can be predicted with some accuracy. In total, 10 double shear models were studied and the results were compared with the 21 experimental tests performed. The double shear tests consisted of applying loads to 2 layered GFRP laminates bonded to a 150 mm concrete cube with a bonded area of 150 × 80 mm (length × width). Double shear models with and without a gap interface were considered in order to emphasize the importance of modelling the GFRP-to-concrete interface with interface finite elements. The effect of the concrete strength on the interface performance was also considered. An externally bonded reinforcement (EBR) concrete T-beam strengthened with 2 GFRP layers is presented to illustrate the application of the method. The wet lay-up technique was used for the external reinforcement of a reinforced concrete T-beam and then tested under a four point bending test until rupture. The results are reported and differences between the numerical and the experimental results are discussed.

Comportamento às acções cíclicas de pilares de betão armado reforçados com materiais compósitos, Chastre Rodrigues, C. , Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Lisboa, (2005) Abstract

This thesis deals with the analysis of the behaviour of retrofitting reinforced concrete circular columns with FRP materials which were subjected either to axial cyclic compression or axial compression and alternated cyclic horizontal loads. The choice of this topic derived from the need to investigate the behaviour of the strengthening of reinforced concrete columns to seismic actions, especially with new materials such as carbon and glass fibres or polymeric mortars. Another reason for such choice is linked to the strong seismicity of the Portuguese territory.
It has been verified that confined concrete columns with FRP jackets have their resistance and ductility highly increased as these considerably reduce the columns transversal deformation, thus preventing the buckling of longitudinal reinforcement. There has been an increasing use of FRP composites in the strengthening of structures, mainly with GFRP (Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastics) or CFRP (Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics). This is due to their attractive characteristics such as high resistance to corrosion, lowratio for weight/strength, moldability, easy application and the fact that there is no need of support structures.
Forty-five experimental tests were carried out, dealing with retrofitting reinforced concrete columns with axial monotonic or cyclic compression reinforced with FRP composites. The column height of 750 mm was maintained in order to evaluate the influence of several parameters in its behaviour: the column geometry (change in its diameter), the type of column (plain or reinforced concrete), transversal reinforcement ratio of concrete columns, the type of external confinement with FRP (C or GFRP), the number of FRP layers and the type of axial loading (monotonic or cyclic).
Twelve additional experimental tests were conducted in order to analyse the behaviour of reinforced concrete columns jacketed with FRP composites and subjected to axial cyclic compression and alternated cyclic horizontal loads. The columns’ dimension was maintained (1500 mm height by 250 mm diameter) and the models were subjected to a series of cyclic and alternated loadings. This enabled the study of the various parameters’ influence in their behaviour such as the type of FRP confinement, the number of FRP layers, the level of axial loading, the jacket’s height or the strengthening of the plastic hinge by replacing the cover concrete with polymeric mortar.
Based on the numerical models presented and experimental analysis carried out, models were proposed and developed to simulate the behaviour of columns jacketed with FRP composites.

Double shear tests to evaluate the bond strength between GFRP/concrete elements, Biscaia, Hugo C., Chastre Carlos, and Silva Manuel A. G. , Composite Structures, Volume 94, Number 2, p.681-694, (2012) AbstractWebsite

Externally bonded reinforced systems have been widely used in civil engineering. However, the problems associated with bond between structural elements are not yet fully solved. As a consequence, many researchers have been proposing tests and techniques to standardize procedures and reach better agreement for design purposes. In the present paper, an experimental program is described that was developed to characterize the glass FRP/concrete interface by double shear tests made on 15 cm side cubes with GFRP bonded on two opposite faces. The GFRP wrap had two layers applied by the wet lay-up technique and three classes of concrete were considered. With the support of the experimental program, cohesion and friction angle for GFRP–concrete interfaces were found leading to different envelope failure laws, based on the Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion for each concrete class, capable of predicting GFRP debonding. Results are discussed.

Factores que influenciam o desempenho da ligação GFRP/betão, Lucas, D., Biscaia H. C., Silva M. A. G., and Chastre C. , Betão Estrutural 2012, Porto, (2012) Abstractlucas2012bisich_-_be2012.pdf

Os compósitos de FRP podem descolar prematuramente da superfíce de betão, isto é, antes de esgotada a sua resistência elástica. Esta situação é mais provável se não forem tidos em conta factores como o tipo de preparação da superfície, a exposição a acção ambiental severa, e a resistência do próprio betão. Com o objectivo de analisar a influência de parte destes factores no desempenho da ligação compósito de fibra de vidro (GFRP) e betão, empreendeu-se uma campanha experimental baseada em ensaios de corte duplo. Os resultados permitiram determinar e comparar as forças máximas transmitidas ao GFRP e tensões de aderência máxima para diferentes tratamentos de superfície e condições de envelhecimento. Foram também determinadas aproximações para curvas de tensão de aderência vs. deslizamento (bond-slip). Os resultados obtidos são contrastados com resultados obtidos por modelação numérica.

Degradação da aderência entre compósitos de GFRP e betão devido a condições ambientais severas, Silva, M. A. G., Biscaia H. C., and Chastre C. , Betão Estrutural 2012, Porto, (2012) Abstractsilva2012bich_-_be2012_-_feup.pdf

A degradação da ligação entre compósitos de matriz polimérica reforçada por fibras (FRP) e o betão é uma das principais causas de possível rotura das vigas e lajes de betão armado reforçadas
externamente por compósitos de FRP. Desde há mais de 10 anos que se estuda, por isso, na UNL o
comportamento dessa ligação, integrado em programa mais alargado de estudo da durabilidade deste tipo de reforço, especialmente quando sujeito a condições ambientais severas que se simulam por processos artificialmente acelerados no laboratório. Em particular a degradação da aderência e o possível descolamento precoce do reforço têm sido modelados física e computacionalmente com principal incidência no uso de fibras de vidro (GFRP) e resina epoxídica. Nesta comunicação mostram-se resultados obtidos em termos de capacidade de carga, força transmitida ao reforço e tensões de aderência após envelhecimentos de pequenas vigas de betão armado (BA) por ciclos de nevoeiro salino, ciclos seco/molhado em solução salina, ciclos de temperatura entre +7,5ºC e +47,5ºC e gelo-degelo de -10ºC a +30ºC. Faz-se recomendação quanto à extensão máxima para diferentes envelhecimentos. Apresenta-se comparação entre resultados de modelação numérica e experimental.