Effect of consolidation treatments on mechanical behaviour of sandstone, Ludovico-Marques, Marco, and Chastre Carlos , Construction and Building Materials, 11/15/, Volume 70, p.473-482, (2014) AbstractWebsite

Experimental research was carried out about into ethyl silicate applications on sandstone samples. Consolidation was assessed by drilling strength, impregnation depth and also monotonic and cyclic uniaxial compressive tests in order to evaluate the compressive mechanical behaviour of treated sandstone. The stress–strain compression diagrams showed a significant increase in the values of mechanical parameters after consolidation treatments. The difference in compressive strength values between monotonic and cyclic compression disappears after the consolidation treatments. An equation of consolidation effect was obtained from an analytical model by means of compressive behaviour assessed by stress–strain diagrams. These sandstone samples have values of porosity similar to the more weathered variety of sandstone found in facades of monuments in the village of Atouguia da Baleia, in the western region of Portugal. The most important degradation pattern found on sandstone building stones is alveolization caused by salt crystallization since the Middle Ages.

Effect of salt crystallization ageing on the compressive behavior of sandstone blocks in historical buildings, Ludovico-Marques, Marco, and Chastre Carlos , Engineering Failure Analysis, 12//, Volume 26, p.247-257, (2012) AbstractWebsite

Sandstone building stones are important in the building elements of Portuguese monuments, particularly in the western and southern regions. Alveolization due to salt crystallization was the most important degradation pattern found in the old sandstone façades of buildings in the village of Atouguia da Baleia. Because weathering progressively increases porosity in stones, experimental research was conducted on the most porous variety of sandstone, which is similar to the type of stones found in the façades of ancient buildings in that village. An automatic salt crystallization accelerated ageing chamber was developed. Monotonic and cyclic uniaxial compressive tests were carried out on samples after sodium chloride crystallization ageing tests had been performed, in order to assess the compressive mechanical behavior of sandstone during accelerated ageing. The results of stress–strain compression diagrams showed a clear decreasing trend in the values of mechanical parameters during the salt crystallization ageing progress. The difference in compressive strength values between monotonic and cyclic compression also decreases with as salt crystallization ageing progresses. A predictive equation that correlates the compressive strength of sandstones with salt crystallization ageing cycles is proposed.

Modelling the compressive mechanical behaviour of granite and sandstone historical building stones, Ludovico-Marques, Marco, Chastre Carlos, and Vasconcelos Graça , Construction and Building Materials, Volume 28, Number 1, p.372-381, (2012) AbstractWebsite

Building stones, particularly sandstone and granite, are very important in the building elements of Portugal’s historical and cultural heritage. Experimental research, based on uniaxial compressive tests, was carried out on selected representative samples of lithotypes of rocks used in historic built heritage, with a view to evaluating the compressive mechanical behaviour of different building stones. The results showed that porosity plays a central role in the compressive behaviour of granites and sandstones. As porosity can be evaluated in field conditions with non-destructive tests it was decided to derive an analytical model to predict compressive behaviour based on the knowledge of porosity of the building stones. A cubic polynomial function was adopted to describe the pre-peak regime under compression to implement the model. Furthermore, a statistical correlation between mechanical and porosity data had to be defined. Good agreement between experimental and analytical compressive stress–strain diagrams, from which the mechanical properties like compressive strength and modulus of elasticity can be derived, was achieved.

Compression behaviour of short columns made from cement-bonded particle board, Faria, Gonçalo, Chastre Carlos, Lúcio Válter, and Nunes Ângela , Construction and Building Materials, 3//, Volume 40, p.60-69, (2013) AbstractWebsite

Cement bonded particle board (CBPB) is a composite material produced in plates consisting mainly of wood and cement, and may contain additives. This material is currently used in cladding, raised floors, dropped ceilings, prefabricated houses, office containers and various supplies to the building industry such as kitchens, bathrooms and furniture. It is composed of a type of wood Pinus pinaster and/or Pinus pinea, Portland cement type II, sodium silicate and aluminium sulphate. CBPB has been the subject of several studies with the purpose of enabling the use of other types of wood or even vegetable biomass, as the chemical compounds from wood (extractives and sugars) tend to inhibit of cement hydration. A study on the behaviour of short CBPB elements under compression was carried out in the Department of Civil Engineering of Universidade NOVA de Lisboa with the aim of enabling its use in structural elements. The study was supported by VIROC, the company which produces CBPB in Portugal. This paper presents and analyses the most significant results of a campaign of axial compression tests performed on 111 specimens of different heights and cross sections. The behaviour of CBPB specimens of varying slenderness was subjected to a more detailed analysis.