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Journal Article
Cardoso, António S., Nuno M. da Costa Guerra, Armando. N. Antão, and Manuel Matos Fernandes. "Limit analysis of anchored concrete soldier-pile walls in clay under vertical loading." Canadian Geotechnical Journal. 43 (2006): 516-530. AbstractWebsite

The vertical stability of anchored concrete soldier-pile walls is highly influenced by the complexity of the interaction between the different parts of the structure, i.e., wall, anchors, and supported soil mass. The problem is analyzed using upper bound limit analysis through published solutions and proposed closed-form equations. A comparison is made between these equations and numerical limit analyses. An estimate of the theoretical minimum pile resistance required to avoid excavation collapse is presented. Published finite element elastoplastic results are used for comparison.Key words: anchored retaining wall, concrete soldier-pile walls, vertical equilibrium, finite elements, limit analysis, soil-to-wall interface shear forces.

Vicente da Silva, M., N. Deusdado, and A. N. Antão. "Lower and upper bound limit analysis via the alternating direction method of multipliers." Computers and Geotechnics. 124 (2020): 103571. AbstractWebsite

Computational limit analysis methods invariably lead to the need to solve a mathematical programming problem. The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) is one versatile and robust technique to solve non-linear convex optimization problems that has recently found applications in a wide range of fields. Its solution scheme, based on an operator splitting algorithm, is not only easy to implement but also suitable to efficiently solve large-scale variational problems. Starting from the ADMM framework, we derive a strict upper bound finite element formulation using a two-(primal)-field approximation, one for the velocity field and the other for the plastic strain rate field. Next, following a similar approach, we develop a novel strict lower bound formulation. Here, the two-(primal)-field model is based on a redundant approximation of the stress field. Duality principles are then explored in order to unify these two formulations.The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated on test problems and, to conclude, some considerations are made about the performance results.