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da Silva, Vicente M., and A. N. Antão. "Computational Upper- and Lower-Bound 3D Limit Analysis Using the Hoek–Brown Yield Criterion." International Journal of Geomechanics. 24 (2024): 04024036. AbstractWebsite

The Hoek–Brown failure criterion has been widely applied to predict the strength of rock masses, demonstrating its relevance in diverse geotechnical contexts. This paper presents a novel 3D numerical implementation of the Hoek–Brown criterion in a finite-element limit analysis code. The proposed formulation is unique in its ability to produce strict upper and lower bounds for 3D problems, providing more accurate and reliable predictions of failure mechanisms compared to previous formulations. The validity of the formulation is demonstrated through comparisons with known analytical solutions or other authors’ numerical solutions. Furthermore, the proposed numerical tool is used to determine the stability of shallow circular tunnels in rock masses, highlighting its practical applicability in engineering design.

Vicente da Silva, M., and A. N. Antão. "A new Hoek-Brown-Matsuoka-Nakai failure criterion for rocks." International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences. 172 (2023): 105602. AbstractWebsite

In the current paper, we propose a new three-dimensional strength criterion for rocks expressed in terms of the first principal stress invariant, I1, and the second and third invariants of the deviatoric stress tensor, J2 and J3. The design of this constitutive model conjugates the characteristics of two of the most well-known and widely used criteria in geotechnical engineering: Hoek-Brown and Matsuoka-Nakai. Its material parameters can be calibrated based on conventional axisymmetric compression and extension tests. Experimental polyaxial test data from a dozen different rock types were used to validate the current criterion.

Gonçalves, Rodrigo, David Henriques, Armando Antão, and Manuel Ritto-Corrêa. "On non-uniform plastic torsion of steel I-section cantilevers." Thin-Walled Structures. 187 (2023): 110731. AbstractWebsite

This paper aims at contributing towards a better understanding of the non-uniform elastoplastic torsion mechanism of I-section beams. The particular case of cantilevers subjected to an end torque is analysed, which constitutes a simple yet interesting problem, since the maximum torque is very close to the so-called Merchant upper bound (MUB), with added independent maximum bishear and Saint-Venant torques. Consequently, it turns out that the maximum torque can be significantly higher than that for uniform plastic torsion. Besides the MUB, several solutions are presented and compared, namely (i) a stress resultant-based solution stemming from the warping beam theory differential equilibrium equation and (ii) solutions obtained with several beam finite elements that allow for a coarse/refined description of warping. It is found that all models are in very close agreement in terms of maximum torque (including the MUB) and stress resultants. However, the beam finite elements that allow for bishear, even with a simplified warping function, are further capable of reproducing quite accurately the stress field, as a comparison with a 3D solid finite element solution shows. Although the paper is primarily concerned with the small displacement case, the influence of considering finite rotations is also addressed.

Vicente da Silva, M., and A. N. Antão. "Three-dimensional Limit Analysis using the Extended-Matsuoka–Nakai yield criterion." Computers and Geotechnics. 161 (2023): 105526. AbstractWebsite

This paper investigates the implementation of the Extended-Matsuoka–Nakai yield criterion on a strict Limit Analysis finite element formulation. The current approach is based on a three-field mixed finite element model and the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers optimization algorithm. With the support of duality principles two variants are derived, the lower bound and the upper bound element. The main novelty of this work is the development of an efficient iterative predictor–corrector scheme, customized for the Extended-Matsuoka–Nakai. This scheme is an indispensable requirement for this formulation. To conclude four numerical examples are presented to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of the numerical tool.

Santana, T., A. Antão, N. Guerra, and M. Vicente da Silva. "Upper bounds for the three-dimensional seismic active earth pressure coefficients." Géotechnique Letters. 13 (2023): 65-74. AbstractWebsite

A numerical implementation of the upper-bound theorem of limit analysis is applied to determine two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) active horizontal earth pressure coefficients considering seismic actions through a horizontal seismic coefficient. Results are obtained for vertical wall, horizontal soil, different friction angles of the soil, soil-to-wall friction ratios, horizontal seismic coefficients and wall width-to-height ratios. The few cases for which 3D active earth pressure coefficients are available in the literature using upper-bound methods were used for comparison with the corresponding earth pressure coefficients obtained in this study. This showed a general improvement of these results, which allows expecting a good accuracy for the set of cases studied. The ratios between the 3D and 2D horizontal active earth pressure coefficients are found to be practically independent of the soil-to-wall friction ratio. An equation is proposed for calculating these ratios. This equation can be easily used in the design of geotechnical structures requiring the determination of 3D active earth pressure coefficients.

Antão, A. N., and M. Vicente da Silva. "Three-dimensional Limit Analysis with Lade-Duncan criterion." Géotechnique Letters. 12 (2022): 1-21. AbstractWebsite

The paper describes the three-dimensional numerical implementation of the Lade-Duncan criterion in a finite element limit analysis (FELA) code. Validation is done using examples with a known solution. To conclude the proposed numerical tool is applied to the calculation of the ultimate bearing capacity of square footing.

Antão, A. N., M. Vicente da Silva, N. Monteiro, and N. Deusdado. "Upper and lower bounds for three-dimensional undrained stability of shallow tunnels." Transportation Geotechnics. 27 (2021): 100491. AbstractWebsite

This paper deals with the determination of upper and lower bounds for the three-dimensional undrained stability of shallow tunnels. The tunnel is circular and a distance between its face and its lining is considered. The soil shear strength is modeled using the Tresca criterion. Results of the upper and lower bounds of the stability number are presented, for several geometrical and resistance configurations and their comparison with previous results is made, showing the clear improvement obtained. Finally, equations approaching the stability number are proposed.

Simões, J. T., L. C. Neves, Nunes A. Antão, and Costa N. M. da Guerra. "Reliability assessment of shallow foundations on undrained soils considering soil spatial variability." Computers and Geotechnics. 119 (2020).
Vicente da Silva, M., N. Deusdado, and A. N. Antão. "Lower and upper bound limit analysis via the alternating direction method of multipliers." Computers and Geotechnics. 124 (2020): 103571. AbstractWebsite

Computational limit analysis methods invariably lead to the need to solve a mathematical programming problem. The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) is one versatile and robust technique to solve non-linear convex optimization problems that has recently found applications in a wide range of fields. Its solution scheme, based on an operator splitting algorithm, is not only easy to implement but also suitable to efficiently solve large-scale variational problems. Starting from the ADMM framework, we derive a strict upper bound finite element formulation using a two-(primal)-field approximation, one for the velocity field and the other for the plastic strain rate field. Next, following a similar approach, we develop a novel strict lower bound formulation. Here, the two-(primal)-field model is based on a redundant approximation of the stress field. Duality principles are then explored in order to unify these two formulations.The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated on test problems and, to conclude, some considerations are made about the performance results.

Viana, L. A., Nunes A. Antão, Vicente M. da Silva, and N. M. C. Guerra The application of limit analysis to the study of the basal failure of deep excavations in clay considering the spatial distribution of soil strength. Proceedings of the 17 European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Reykjavik, Islândia, 2019.
Antão, Nunes A., N. M. C. Guerra, Vicente M. da Silva, and T. Santana Upper and lower bounds for the bearing apacity of foundations on soft soils with reinforcement columns. Proceedings of the 17 th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Reykjavik, Islândia, 2019.
Santana, T., Vicente M. da Silva, Nunes A. Antão, and N. M. C. Guerra Two dimensional upper and lower-bound numerical analysis of the basal stability of deep excavations in clay. Pro eedings of the 9 th European Conference on Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering (NUMGE 2018). Porto, 2018.
Franco, F., Nunes A. Antão, Vicente M. da Silva, and N. M. C. Guerra Bearing capacity of shallow impervious footing in soil under sub-vertical seepage. Pro eedings of the 18 th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Seoul, Coreia, 2017.
Josefino, Santos C. J., Costa N. M. da Guerra, and Nunes A. Antão. "Influence of the Embedded Length on the Overall Stability of Single Anchored Retaining Walls." Soils & Rocks. 40.2 (2017): 133-145.
Deusdado, N., Nunes A. Antão, Vicente M. da Silva, and N. M. C. Guerra Application of the Upper and Lower-Bound Theorems to Three-Dimensional Stability of Soil Slope. 3 th International Conferen e on Transportation Geotechnics. Guimarães., 2016.
Guerra, N. M. C., Santos C. Josefino, and Nunes A. Antão Overall stability of anchored retaining structures: revisiting Broms' method. Proceedings of the Edinburgh and Pune Workshops of TC207 of ISSMGE. Edimburgo, Escócia, 2016.
Deusdado, N., Vicente M. da Silva, and Nunes A. Antão Parallel 3D limit analysis via the alternating direction method of multipliers. Computational Plasticity XIII, COMPLAS2015. Barcelona, Espanha, 2016.
Antão, Nunes A., T. Santana, Vicente M. da Silva, and Costa N. M. da Guerra. "Three-dimensional active earth pressure coefficients by upper bound numerical limit analysis." Computers and Geotechnics. 79 (2016): 96-104.
Leal, R., Nunes A. Antão, and N. M. C. Guerra Flexible retaining structures supported by anchor beams: the problem of tie-rod length. Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Edimburgo, Escócia: 3, 2015.
Simões, J. T., L. C. Neves, Nunes A. Antão, and Costa N. M. da Guerra. "Pro- babilisti analysis of bearing apa ity of shallow foundations using three-dimensional limit analyses." International Journal of Computational Methods. 11.2 (2014).
Vicente da Silva, M., and A. N. Antão. "A novel augmented Lagrangian based formulation for upper bound limit analysis." International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering. vol. 89.nº 12 (2012): pp. 1471-1496. Abstract

This paper describes a novel upper-bound formulation of limit analysis. This formulation is an innovative variant of an existing two-field mixed formulation based on the augmented Lagrangian method also developed by the authors. A natural approach is used to describe the deformation of each finite element. Furthermore, and in contrast to the previous formulation, two independent field approximations are now both used to define the velocity field, defined globally and at element level. It is shown that this feature allows a governing system of uncoupled linear equations to be obtained. Some numerical examples in plane strain conditions are presented in order to illustrate the current model performance. In conclusion, the potential and advantages of this new approach are discussed.

Antão, A. N., Nuno M. Vicente da Silva, da Costa Guerra, and R. Delgado. "An upper bound-based solution for the shape factors of bearing capacity of footings under drained conditions using a parallelized mixed f.e. formulation with quadratic velocity fields." Computers and Geotechnics. 41 (2012): 23-35. Abstract

A strict upper-bound limit analysis finite element formulation is used to estimate shape factors s_gamma and s_q for determining the bearing capacity of shallow foundations using the classic bearing capacity formula. The finite element formulation uses a quadratic approximation for the velocity field, an extension of a previously published Augmented Lagrangian formulation with a linear velocity field, and was implemented for a parallel processing environment. Results from determining the limit loads under three-dimensional conditions are presented and compared with previously published data. The results obtained allow a strict upper-bound determination of the shape factors. Furthermore, a practical proposal for these factors is made and compared with other proposals made by other authors.