Publications

Export 575 results:
Sort by: [ Author  (Asc)] Title Type Year
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 
A
AÁguas, H., Fortunato Silva Pereira Martins E. V. L. "High quality a-Si:H films for MIS device applications." Thin Solid Films. 403 (2002): 26-29. AbstractWebsite

This work presents the I-V results of a-Si:H/SiOx/Pd MIS (metal-insulator-semiconductor) structures. The a-Si:H was deposited by non-conventional modified triode PECVD. This new configuration allows the deposition of high quality a-Si:H with a photosensitivity of 106, indicating the presence of low density of defects. Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements revealed that these films are highly dense and present a very smooth surface so allowing a low defect interface between the Pd and the a-Si:H. As a result, we could make MIS photodiodes with barrier heights of 1.17 eV, which give a high reduction of the reverse dark current, an increase of the signal to noise ratio of 106 and an open circuit voltage VOC = 0.5 V. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Á
Águas, H.a, Pereira Ferreira Ramos Viana Andreu Vilarinho Fortunato Martins L. a I. a. "Effect of an interfacial oxide layer in the annealing behaviour of Au/a-Si:H MIS photodiodes." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 338-340 (2004): 810-813. AbstractWebsite

This work presents a study on the effect of an interfacial silicon oxide layer placed between Au and a-Si:H MIS (metal-insulator-semiconductor) photodiodes in their performances, by stopping the Au diffusion towards the a-Si:H. The results show that the Au diffuses very easily to the oxide free a-Si:H surface, even at room temperature, degrading the photodiode performance. On the other hand, the MIS photodiodes with the interfacial oxide show an improvement of their characteristics after annealing, function of its thickness, and degree of film's compactness. This effect is associated with the presence of oxide of thicknesses ≥5 Å at the Au/a-Si:H interface that prevents the Au diffusion and improves the photodiode characteristics, which does not happen when the interfacial oxide is absent. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Águas, H.M.B., Fortunato Cabrita Silva Tonello Martins E. M. C. A. "Correlation between surface/interface states and the performance of MIS structures." Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings. Vol. 609. 2000. A1211-A1216. Abstract

In order to understand the kinetics of formation of interface/surface states and its correlation on the final device performance, a preliminary study was performed on MIS structures, before and after surface oxidation/passivation, using different oxidation techniques and oxides: thermal (in air), chemical (in H2O2) and oxygen plasma. The devices used in this work are based on a glass/Cr/a-Si:H(n+)/a-Si:H(i)/SiOx/Pd structures, where the amorphous silicon intrinsic layer (i a-Si:H) with a photosensitivity of 107 was deposited by a modified plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) triode system. The electrical properties of a-Si:H MIS structures were investigated by measuring their diode current-voltage characteristics in the dark and under illumination as well as the spectral response, as a function of the various oxidation techniques. Infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry were used as a complementary tool to characterise the oxidised surface.

Águas, H., Perreira Silva Fortunato Martins L. R. J. C. "Effect of the tunnelling oxide growth by H2O2 oxidation on the performance of a-Si:H MIS photodiodes." Materials Science and Engineering B: Solid-State Materials for Advanced Technology. 109 (2004): 256-259. AbstractWebsite

In this work metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) photodiodes with a structure: Cr/a-Si:H(n+)/a-Si:H(i)/oxide/Au were studied, where the main objective was to determine the influence of the oxide layer on the performance of the devices. The results achieved show that their performance is a function of both oxide thickness and oxide density. The a-Si:H oxidation method used was the immersion in H2O2 solution. By knowledge of the oxide growth process it was possible to fabricate photodiodes exhibiting an open circuit voltage of 0.65V and short circuit current density under AM1.5 illumination of 11mA/cm2, with a response times less than 1μs for load resistance <400Ω, and a signal to noise ratio of 1×107. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Águas, H., Martins Fortunato R. E. "Influence of the plasma regime on the structural, optical and transport properties of a-Si:H thin films." Key Engineering Materials. 230-232 (2002): 583-586. AbstractWebsite

In this work we show that it is possible to control the plasma species present near the substrate surface, from what is usually associated with an α regime (a plasma free of particles) to a γ' regime (a plasma where particles are present) and simultaneously control the energy of the ions striking the substrate during a-Si:H deposition from a silane glow discharge in a modified triode (MT) type PECVD reactor, where a DC mesh electrode biased with Vpol is located in front of the r.f electrode. The presence of large particles in the plasma leads to the deposition of the films with the poorest optoelectronic properties. When the particle size in the plasma decrease the film properties improve, but, when particles are no longer present in the plasma region close to the substrate, like in a α like regime, the properties of the films deteriorate again. The results show that the best transport properties are achieved for the films deposited in the α-γ' transition regime corresponding to 0V<Vpol<51V. Under this condition the films present a dark conductivity, σ d ≈ 10-11 (Ωcm)-1, photosensitivity, S ≈ 107, activation energy, ΔE ≈ 0.9 eV, hydrogen content, CH ≈ 10%, factor of microstructure, R ≈ 0.085 and an optical gap, Eop ≈ 1.77 eV.

Águas, H., Pereira Raniero Costa Fortunato Martins L. L. D. "Investigation of a-Si:H 1D MIS position sensitive detectors for application in 3D sensors." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 352 (2006): 1787-1791. AbstractWebsite

This paper presents the results achieved in optimized 1D position sensitive detectors (PSD) using a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure and different length to width ratios, in order to determine the optimal geometrical factor for the desired 3D integration. The results show that the optimized MIS PSD produced, exhibited linearity errors as low as 0.8% and sensitivities of 32 mV/cm, for a 5 mW spot beam intensity at a wavelength of 532 nm. The sensors can achieve a longitudinal spatial resolution of 1.25 μm (estimated by modulation transfer function calculation), while the transverse resolution depends on the minimum width used for each sensor. The calculated Jones parameter of the sensors is higher than 1011 J, with a fall-off parameter of 0.012 cm-1, indicating a high signal to noise detection ratio. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

i Águas, H.a, Roca Cabarrocas Lebib Silva Fortunato Martins P. b S. b. "Polymorphous silicon deposited in large area reactor at 13 and 27 MHz." Thin Solid Films. 427 (2003): 6-10. AbstractWebsite

Despite of a growing interest in this material, until now the studies on polymorphous silicon (pm-Si:H) have been performed on small laboratory reactors working at 13.56 MHz. Envisaging an industrial application of pm-Si:H, the technology was transferred to a large area plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition reactor (25 × 40 cm2) working at excitation frequencies of 13.56 and 27.12 MHz. The plasma was characterized by impedance probe measurements and the films were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry, infrared spectroscopy and hydrogen evolution experiments, which are techniques that allow a rapid and reliable identification of pm-Si:H structure. Conductivity measurements were also performed to determine their transport properties. The results show that scaling up using the 13.56 MHz was successfully done and pm-Si:H films were deposited at a growth rate of ≈ 12 nm/min. Moreover, by using the 27.12 MHz excitation frequency the growth rate was even further increased to above 18 nm/min, as desired for industrial production. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Águas, H., Silva Viegas Pereira Fortunato Martins R. J. C. M. "Study of environmental degradation of silver surface." Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics. 5 (2008): 1215-1218. AbstractWebsite

To evaluate the evolution of a dark film formation on silver surface objects, several coupons were catalogued and place inside a museum, located in an urban area. The changes on these samples were measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry, in periods of months. This technique allows the reduction of the coupons exposure time, in several months, due to its high sensitivity to surface modifications, with acceptable results for the evaluation of its degradation. The thicknesses of the degradation layers and the optical properties of silver oxide, chloride and sulphide reference samples were determined using a mixture of Tauc-Lorentz and Drude models. The composition of the silver corrosion layer was determined by fitting the layer using a Bruggeman Effective Medium Approximation (BEMA) of the three products plus voids. It was found that the thickness of the layer depends in the placement of the coupons, namely, inside or outside displayers. The average film thickness after 6 months was of 180 Å and 280 Å, inside and outside the displayers, respectively. The main compounds found in the layers were the silver chlorides and sulphides, which composition changed with the thickness of the layer, and the exposition time. © 2008 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Águas, H., Pereira Raniero Fortunato Martins L. L. E. "Effect of the load resistance in the linearity and sensitivity of MIS position sensitive detectors." Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings. Vol. 862. 2005. 691-696. Abstract

It is experimentally known that the linearity and sensitivity of the position sensitive detectors (PSD) are dependent on the resistance of the collecting layer and of the load resistance, mainly if the detection is based on the measurement of the photo-lateral voltage. To determine the value of the load resistance to be used in metal - insulator - semiconductor (MIS) PSDs structures that lead to the maximum value of sensitivity and linearity, we propose an electrical model through which it is able to simulate the proper sensor response and how the load resistance influence the results obtained. This model is valid for PSDs where the resistance of the collecting resistive layer is quite low (≤ 500 Ω), leading to a low output impedance. Under these conditions we conclude that the value of the load resistance should be of about 1 kΩ in order to achieve a good compromise between the linearity and the sensitivity of the PSD. This result is in agreement with the set of experiments performed. © 2005 Materials Research Society.

Águas, H., Ram Araújo Gaspar Vicente Filonovich Fortunato Martins Ferreira S. K. A. "Silicon thin film solar cells on commercial tiles." Energy and Environmental Science. 4 (2011): 4620-4632. AbstractWebsite

Nanostructured silicon single junction thin film solar cells were deposited on commercial red clay roof tiles with engobe surfaces and earthenware wall tiles with glazed surfaces, with a test area of 24 mm 2. We studied the influence of the type of substrate tile, back contact, buffer layer and SiO x passivation layer on the optoelectronic performance of the solar cells. Despite the fact that typical micrometre-sized defects on the surfaces of the tiles and the porous nature of the ceramic substrates make deposition of homogeneous thin films on them quite challenging, we have been able to achieve a cell efficiency of 5% and a quantum efficiency of 80% on non-fully optimized cells on commercial tiles. The method is industrially employable utilizing pre-existing plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition technologies. The cost-effectiveness and industrial feasibility of the technique are discussed. Our study shows that photovoltaic tiles can combine energy generation with architectural aesthetics leading to significant implications for advancement in building integrated photovoltaics. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Águas, H., Pereira Costa Barquinha Pereira Fortunato Martins S. D. P. "3 dimensional polymorphous silicon based metal-insulator-semiconductor position sensitive detectors." Thin Solid Films. 515 (2007): 7530-7533. AbstractWebsite

In this work we investigate the properties of a polymorphous silicon (pm-Si:H) metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure used in 3D position sensitive detectors (PSD). For the first time a 3D sensor made-up by pm-Si:H/SiO2/Au layers is presented. MIS structures present several advantages over p-i-n structures, such as easier fabrication, fast response time and higher resolution. The 1D MIS PSD that constitute the array were extensively studied aiming its application in 3D pattern recognition. The results obtained show that MIS PSD can achieve non-linearities below 2% and sensitivities of 3.2 μA/cm over 6 mm length sensors. The miniaturization of the sensors length to arrays of 6 and 16 mm, respectively showed average non-linearities of about 1.9% for the 16 mm sensor which proved to be the best solution for this MIS structure. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Águas, H., Martins Nunes Maneira Fortunato R. Y. M. "Influence of the plasma regime on the structural, optical, electrical and morphological properties of a-Si:H thin films." Materials Science Forum. 382 (2001): 11-20. AbstractWebsite

{In this work we report how it is possible to control the plasma regime near the substrate surface, from predominantly α to predominantly γ', passing trough and intermediate α-γ' regime, and simultaneously control the energy of the ions striking the substrate during a-Si:H deposition from a silane glow discharge in a modified triode type PECVD reactor. To do so, we apply a DC voltage (Vpol to a set of grids placed in front of the r.f. electrode and by doing this, we control the energy of the ions striking the substrate during the film's growth and the plasma regime near the substrate. Under a plasma of the γ' regime, the surface roughness is high and the films are poorly compact. In the α-γ' regime, the ion bombardment is moderate and the films are highly smooth and compact. In the α regime the ion bombardment is higher and so the films can become more compact but the surface roughness increases and the electrical properties deteriorate. The results achieved show that the best transport properties are achieved for the films deposited in the α-γ' regime corresponding to a Vpol of 38 V. Under this condition the films presented a dark conductivity, σd = 6.2×10-12 (Ωcm)-1, activation energy, ΔE ≈ 0.9 eV, hydrogen content

Águas, H., Cabrita Tonello Nunes Fortunato Martins A. P. P. "Two step process for the growth of a thin layer of silicon dioxide for tunnelling effect applications." Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings. Vol. 619. 2000. 179-184. Abstract

In today's main crystalline silicon (c-Si) applications in MOS (metal-oxide-silicon), MIS (metal-insulator-semiconductor) or SIS (Semiconductor-Insulator-Semiconductor), the growing of the oxide layer plays the main role, dictating the device performances, in particular if it has to be grown by a low temperature process. Of fundamental importance is the SiO2 interface with the c-Si. A very low defect density interface is desirable so that the number of trapping states can be reduced and the devices performance optimised. A two step low temperature oxidation process is proposed. The process consists of growing first a layer of oxide by a wet process and then treating the grown oxide with an oxygen plasma. The oxygen ions from the plasma bombard the oxide causing compaction of the oxide and a decrease in the interface roughness and defect density. Infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements were performed on the samples to determine the oxide thickness, optical and structural properties. SIS structures were built and capacitance measurements were performed under dark and illuminated conditions from which were inferred the interface defect density and correlated with the oxide growth process.

Águas, H.a, Pereira Goullet Silva Fortunato Martins L. a A. b. "Correlation between the Tunnelling Oxide and I-V Curves of MIS Photodiodes." Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings. Vol. 762. 2003. 217-222. Abstract

In this work we present results of a study performed on MIS diodes with the following structure: substrate (glass) / Cr (2000Å) / a-Si:H n + (400Å) / a-Si:H i (5500Å) / oxide (0-40Å) / Au (100Å) to determine the influence of the oxide passivation layer grown by different techniques on the electrical performance of MIS devices. The results achieved show that the diodes with oxides grown using hydrogen peroxide present higher rectification factor (2×106) and signal to noise (S/N) ratio (1×107 at -1V) than the diodes with oxides obtained by the evaporation of SiO2, or by the chemical deposition of SiO 2 by plasma of HMDSO (hexamethyldisiloxane), but in the case of deposited oxides, the breakdown voltage is higher, 30V instead of 3-10 V for grown oxides. The ideal oxide thickness, determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry, is dependent on the method used to grow the oxide layer and is in the range between 6 and 20 Å. The reason for this variation is related to the degree of compactation of the oxide produced, which is not relevant for applications of the diodes in the range of ± 1V, but is relevant when high breakdown voltages are required.

Águas, H., Pereira Costa Fortunato Martins L. D. E. "Super linear position sensitive detectors using MIS structures." Optical Materials. 27 (2005): 1088-1092. AbstractWebsite

This work reports on the fabrication process and performances presented by metal insulator semiconductor (MIS) linear position sensitive detectors (PSD) with an active length of 6 cm. The use of long sensitive areas allows the PSD to achieve higher resolution without the need of a highly accurate light spot integration mechanism. The PSD is built in a multilayered structure consisting of Cr/a-Si:H (n+ doped)/a-Si:H (intrinsic)/SiOx (passivation layer)/Au, where the active a-Si:H layers were deposited by a modified triode plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (MTPECVD), which allows the deposition of highly electronic grade material with a low (≈ × 1015 cm-3) defect density inferred by CPM. The sensor linearity and sensitivity shows dependence on the sensor width to length ratio and on the value of load resistance. Sensitivities of more than 30 mV/cm were achieved with linearity near 99%. Besides that, this type of MIS structure allows an improved spectral response near the UV region and has the maximum response at 540 nm. © 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Águas, H.a, Mateus Vicente Gaspar Mendes Schmidt Pereira Fortunato Martins T. a A. a. "Thin Film Silicon Photovoltaic Cells on Paper for Flexible Indoor Applications." Advanced Functional Materials. 25 (2015): 3592-3598. AbstractWebsite

The present development of non-wafer-based photovoltaics (PV) allows supporting thin film solar cells on a wide variety of low-cost recyclable and flexible substrates such as paper, thereby extending PV to a broad range of consumer-oriented disposable applications where autonomous energy harvesting is a bottleneck issue. However, their fibrous structure makes it challenging to fabricate good-performing inorganic PV devices on such substrates. The advances presented here demonstrate the viability of fabricating thin film silicon PV cells on paper coated with a hydrophilic mesoporous layer. Such layer can not only withstand the cells production temperature (150 C), but also provide adequate paper sealing and surface finishing for the cell's layers deposition. The substances released from the paper substrate are continuously monitored during the cell deposition by mass spectrometry, which allows adapting the procedures to mitigate any contamination from the substrate. In this way, a proof-of-concept solar cell with 3.4% cell efficiency (41% fill factor, 0.82 V open-circuit voltage and 10.2 mA cm-2 short-circuit current density) is attained, opening the door to the use of paper as a reliable substrate to fabricate inorganic PV cells for a plethora of indoor applications with tremendous impact in multi-sectorial fields such as food, pharmacy and security. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Águas, H.a, Mateus Vicente Gaspar Mendes Schmidt Pereira Fortunato Martins T. a A. a. "Thin Film Silicon Photovoltaic Cells on Paper for Flexible Indoor Applications." Advanced Functional Materials (2015). AbstractWebsite

The present development of non-wafer-based photovoltaics (PV) allows supporting thin film solar cells on a wide variety of low-cost recyclable and flexible substrates such as paper, thereby extending PV to a broad range of consumer-oriented disposable applications where autonomous energy harvesting is a bottleneck issue. However, their fibrous structure makes it challenging to fabricate good-performing inorganic PV devices on such substrates. The advances presented here demonstrate the viability of fabricating thin film silicon PV cells on paper coated with a hydrophilic mesoporous layer. Such layer can not only withstand the cells production temperature (150 °C), but also provide adequate paper sealing and surface finishing for the cell's layers deposition. The substances released from the paper substrate are continuously monitored during the cell deposition by mass spectrometry, which allows adapting the procedures to mitigate any contamination from the substrate. In this way, a proof-of-concept solar cell with 3.4% cell efficiency (41% fill factor, 0.82 V open-circuit voltage and 10.2 mA cm-2 short-circuit current density) is attained, opening the door to the use of paper as a reliable substrate to fabricate inorganic PV cells for a plethora of indoor applications with tremendous impact in multi-sectorial fields such as food, pharmacy and security. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Águas, H., Martins Fortunato R. E. "Plasma diagnostics of a PECVD system using different R.F. electrode configurations." Vacuum. 56 (2000): 31-37. AbstractWebsite

This work aims to study the role of the r.f. electrode configuration on the plasma characteristics of a PECVD asymmetric reactor. The configurations used are the usual diode configuration, the triode configuration and a new configuration that we named short-circuited grid electrode (SGE). The plasma generated was characterized with the use of a Langmuir probe and an impedance probe. We demonstrate that the plasma parameters are highly dependent on the reactor geometry. The results achieved show that by changing the r.f. electrode configuration the DC self-bias varies from about 100 to close to 0 V. This variation causes changes in the ion bombardment of the reactor surfaces, which can affect the growing of the films deposited. We also demonstrate that for the SGE configuration the area seen by the plasma does not correspond to the exposed physical area of the electrode, and we suggest a model to explain this phenomenon.

b Águas, H.a b, Filonovich Bernacka-Wojcik Fortunato Martins S. A. a I. "Role of trimethylboron to silane ratio on the properties of p-type nanocrystalline silicon thin film deposited by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition." Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. 10 (2010): 2547-2551. AbstractWebsite

Trimethylboron (TMB) has been receiving attention as a valid alternative to diborane and methane mixtures for the deposition of p-type silicon films for applications in optoelectronic devices such as solar cells. In this paper we report on p-type hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon carbide (nc-Si:C:H) films produced by standard 13.56 MHz plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique, using TMB as gas source, under high hydrogen dilution (98%) and using high deposition pressures (3 Torr). The films obtained were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), Raman spectroscopy (RS), and electrical measurements to determine their optical, structural and electrical properties. We achieved conductivities as high as 8.3 (Ω cm) -1, one of the highest values of conductivity published to date using TMB with standard rf-PECVD. Spectroscopic ellipsometry modeling revealed that the films growth mechanism proceeds through a sub-surface layer mechanism that leads to the formation of nanocrystalline silicon. Copyright © 2010 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

Águas, H.a, Goullet Pereira Fortunato Martins A. b L. a. "Effect of the tunnelling oxide thickness and density on the performance of MIS photodiodes." Thin Solid Films. 451-452 (2004): 361-365. AbstractWebsite

In this work we present results of a study performed on metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) diodes with the following structure: substrate (glass)/Cr (2000 Å)/a-Si:H n+(400 Å)/a-Si:H i (5500 Å)/oxide (0-40 Å)/Au (100 Å) to determine the influence of the oxide passivation layer grown by different techniques on the electrical performance of MIS devices. The results achieved show that the diodes with oxides grown using hydrogen peroxide present higher rectification factor (2×106) and signal to noise (S/N) ratio (1×10 7 at -1 V) than the diodes with oxides obtained by the evaporation of SiO2, or by the chemical deposition of SiO2 by plasma of hexamethyldisiloxane. However, in the case of deposited oxides, the breakdown voltage is higher, 30 V instead of 3-10 V for grown oxides. The ideal oxide thickness, determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry, is dependent on the method used to grow the oxide layer and is in the range between 6 and 20 Å. The reason for this variation is related to the degree of compactation of the oxide produced, which is not relevant for applications of the diodes in the range of ±1 V, but is relevant when high breakdown voltages are required. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Águas, H., Silva Ferreira Fortunato Martins V. I. E. "Study of the effect of different plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition reactor configurations on the properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films." Philosophical Magazine B: Physics of Condensed Matter; Statistical Mechanics, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Properties. 80 (2000): 475-486. AbstractWebsite

In this work we present a study performed in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition reactor, where different rf electrode configurations were used with the aim of achieving conditions that lead to growth of highly uniform amorphous silicon films, with the required electronic quality, at high growth rates. This study consists in determining the plasma characteristics under different electrode configurations, in an argon plasma, using as diagnostic tools a Langmuir probe and impedance probe. These results were correlated with the hydrogenated amorphous silicon films produced, thereby allowing us to establish the best electrode configuration to grow electronic-grade-quality amorphous silicon films.

Águas, H., Nunes Fortunato Silva Silva Figueiredo Soares Martins P. E. R. "Hydrogenated amorphous silicon / ZnO shottky heterojunction for position sensitive detectors." Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings. Vol. 664. 2001. A2661-A2666. Abstract

In this work a new structure is proposed for position sensitive detectors consisting of glass/Cr/aSi:H(n+)/a-Si:H(i)/ZnO, where the ZnO forms an heterojunction with the a-Si:H(i). The results show that this structure works with success in the fabrication of linear position sensitive detectors. The devices present a good nonlinearity of ≈ 2% and a good sensitivity to the light intensity. The main advantages of this structure over the classical p-i-n are an easier to built topology and a higher yield due to a better immunity to the a-Si:H pinholes, since the ZnO does not diffuse so easily into a-Si:H as the metal does, which are the cause of frequent failure in the p-i-n devices due to short-circuits caused by the deposition of the metal over the a-Si:H. In this structure the illumination is made directly on the ZnO, so a transparent substrate is not needed and a larger range of substrates can be used.

Águas, H., Marques Martins Fortunato A. R. E. "Fast and cheap method to qualitatively measure the thickness and uniformity of ZrO2 thin films." Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing. 4 (2001): 319-321. AbstractWebsite

This work presents a fast method to determine qualitatively the uniformity and the thickness of transparent or semitransparent thin films in the visible to near-infrared region. The method proposed is based on the information recorded by a colour scanner in the form of coloured regions, due to the constructive interferences caused by multibeam wavelength light sources as function of the film thickness and refractive index. The method is well applied in transparent films, where the uniformity cannot be seen by visual inspection. This paper shows that the results obtained for ZrO2 films are satisfactory enabling the application of this technique to determine the films uniformity in fast and cheap way.

Águas, H.a, Popovici Pereiraa Conde Branford Cohen Fortunato Martins N. b L. "Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of Co-doped TiO 2 films." Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials Science. 205 (2008): 880-883. AbstractWebsite

Co-doped TiO 2 films were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry to determine their thickness, deposition rate and optical properties as function of substance temperature and background gas composition. To fit the data we used a combination of a single Tauc-Lorentz oscillator with the Drude free electron model to take in account the free electrons present in the film. The Co doping and addition of H 2 to the gas phase during film growth cause the formation of a titanium oxide which containsfree electrons that absorb the energy of the red part of the spectrum, causing k to increase. The n of the film at 1.5 eV is about 2.3 eV. The fittings also show that the n of films decreases and k increase at the surface. This can be related to a segregation of Co to the surface, which in some cases, of high substrate temperature and high H 2 flow during deposition, can lead to and even higher concentration of free electrons at the surface. © 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Águas, H.a, Nunes Fortunato Gordo Maneira Martins Y. b E. a. "Correlation between a-Si:H surface oxidation process and the performance of MIS structures." Thin Solid Films. 383 (2001): 185-188. AbstractWebsite

In order to correlate the MIS devices performance with different surface oxidation methods, AFM, spectroscopic ellipsometry and infrared spectroscopy measurements were performed in a-Si:H films, before and after surface oxidation, using different oxidation techniques and oxides: thermal dry (in air), wet (in H2O2) and by oxygen plasma, while MIS (metal-insulator-semiconductor) devices were characterized by I-V curves, under dark and AM1.5 illumination conditions. The a-Si:H films were grown by the PECVD technique, in a modified triode configuration reactor to allow a precise control of the ion bombardment during the film deposition. We found that the growth of a thin layer of oxide by chemical processes on the top of the a-Si:H surface can cause changes on the surface morphology that are reflected in the electrical behaviour of the devices. The oxygen plasma treatment, cause the rearrangement of the surface atoms leading to a change of their morphology and to the improvement of the electrical properties of the surface for a MIS applications.