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Tavares, P., AS Pereira, JJG Moura, and I. Moura. "{Metalloenzymes of the denitrification pathway}." Journal Of Inorganic Biochemistry. 100 (2006): 2087-2100. Abstract
Denitrification, or dissimilative nitrate reduction, is an anaerobic process used by some bacteria for energy generation. This process is important in many aspects, but its environmental implications have been given particular relevance. Nitrate accumulation and release of nitrous oxide in the atmosphere due to excess use of fertilizers in agriculture are examples of two environmental problems where denitrification plays a central role. The reduction of nitrate to nitrogen gas is accomplished by four different types of metalloenzymes in four simple steps: nitrate is reduced to nitrite, then to nitric oxide, followed by the reduction to nitrous oxide and by a final reduction to dinitrogen. In this manuscript we present a concise updated review of the bioinorganic aspects of denitrification. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cordas, Cristina M., Alice S. Pereira, Carlos E. Martins, Cristina G. Timoteo, Isabel Moura, Jose J. G. Moura, and Pedro Tavares. "{Nitric oxide reductase: Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalytic activity}." Chembiochem. 7 (2006): 1878-1881.
Fisher, Karl, David J. Lowe, Pedro Tavares, Alice S. Pereira, Boi Hanh Huynh, Dale Edmondson, and William E. Newton. "{Conformations generated during turnover of the Azotobacter vinelandii nitrogenase MoFe protein and their relationship to physiological function}." Journal Of Inorganic Biochemistry. 101 (2007): 1649-1656. Abstract
Various S = 3/2 EPR signals elicited from wild-type and variant Azotobacter vinelandii nitrogenase MoFe proteins appear to reflect different conformations assumed by the FeMo-cofactor with different protonation states. To determine whether these presumed changes in protonation and conformation reflect catalytic capacity, the responses (particularly to changes in electron flux) of the alpha H195Q, alpha H195N, and alpha Q191 K variant MoFe proteins (where His at position 195 in the alpha subunit is replaced by Gln/Asn or Gln at position alpha-191 by Lys), which have strikingly different substrate-reduction properties, were studied by stopped-flow or rapid-freeze techniques. Rapid-freeze EPR at low electron flux (at 3-fold molar excess of wild-type Fe protein) elicited two transient FeMo-cofactor-based EPR signals within 1 s of initiating turnover under N-2 with the alpha H195Q and alpha H195N variants, but not with the alpha Q191K variant. No EPR signals attributable to P cluster oxidation were observed for any of the variants under these conditions. Furthermore, during turnover at low electron flux with the wild-type, alpha H195Q or alpha H195N MoFe protein, the longer-time 430-nm absorbance increase, which likely reflects P cluster oxidation, was also not observed (by stopped-flow spectrophotometry); it did, however, occur for all three MoFe proteins under higher electron flux. No 430-nm absorbance increase occurred with the alpha Q191K variant, not even at higher electron flux. This putative lack of involvement of the P cluster in electron transfer at low electron flux was confirmed by rapid-freeze Fe-57 Mossbauer spectroscopy, which clearly showed FeMo-factor reduction without P cluster oxidation. Because the wild-type, alpha H195Q and alpha H195N MoFe proteins can bind N-2, but alpha Q195K cannot, these results suggest that P cluster oxidation occurs only under high electron flux as required for N-2 reduction. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pauleta, Sofia R., Americo G. Duarte, Marta S. Carepo, Alice S. Pereira, Pedro Tavares, Isabel Moura, and Jose J. G. Moura. "{NMR assignment of the apo-form of a Desulfovibrio gigas protein containing a novel Mo-Cu cluster}." Biomolecular Nmr Assignments. 1 (2007): 81-83. Abstract
We report the 98% assignment of the apo-form of an orange protein, containing a novel Mo-Cu cluster isolated from Desulfovibrio gigas. This protein presents a region where backbone amide protons exchange fast with bulk solvent becoming undetectable. These residues were assigned using C-13-detection experiments.
Pereira, A., P. Tavares, F. Folgosa, R. Almeida, I. Moura, and J. Moura. "{Superoxide reductases}." European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry (2007): 2569-2581. Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), when in excess, are among the most deleterious species an organism can deal with. The physiological effects of ROS include amino acid chain cleavage, DNA degradation and lipid oxidation, among others. They can be formed in the cytoplasm in a variety of ways, including autooxidation reactions (FMN- and FAD-containing enzymes) and Fenton reactions as a result of the cytoplasmatic pool of iron ions. The superoxide anion (021, despite its short half-life in solution, is particularly pernicious as it can form other reactive ROS (such as the strong oxidant peroxynitrite) or oxidize and/or reduce cellular components. For strict anaerobic or microaerophilic bacteria it is of particular importance to be able to dispose of ROS in a controlled manner, especially if these organisms are temporarily exposed to air. This review aims to describe the structural characteristics of superoxide reductases (SORs) and mechanistic aspects of biological superoxide anion reduction. SORs can be considered the main class of enzymes behind the oxygen detoxification pathway of anaerobic and microaerophilic bacteria. The geometry of the active site (three classes have been described), the possible electron donors in vivo and the current hypothesis for the catalytic mechanism will be discussed. Some phylogenetic considerations are presented, regarding the primary structure of SORs currently available in genome databases. ((c) Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH {&} Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2007).
Gavel, Olga Yu, Sergey A. Bursakov, Giulia Di Rocco, Jose Trincao, Ingrid J. Pickering, Graham N. George, Juan J. Calvete, Valery L. Shnyrov, Carlos D. Brondino, Alice S. Pereira, Jorge Lampreia, Pedro Tavares, Jose J. G. Moura, and Isabel Moura. "{A new type of metal-binding site in cobalt- and zinc-containing adenylate kinases isolated from sulfate-reducers Desulfovibrio gigas and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774}." Journal Of Inorganic Biochemistry. 102 (2008): 1380-1395. Abstract
Adenylate kinase (AK) mediates the reversible transfer of phosphate groups between the adenylate nucleotides and contributes to the maintenance of their constant cellular level, necessary for energy metabolism and nucleic acid synthesis. The AK were purified from crude extracts of two sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), Desulfovibrio (D.) gigas NCIB 9332 and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774, and biochemically and spectroscopically characterised in the native and fully cobalt- or zinc-substituted forms. These are the first reported adenylate kinases that bind either zinc or cobalt and are related to the subgroup of metal-containing AK found, in most cases, in Gram-positive bacteria. The electronic absorption spectrum is consistent with tetrahedral coordinated cobalt, predominantly via sulfur ligands, and is supported by EPR. The involvement of three cysteines in cobalt or zinc coordination was confirmed by chemical methods. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) indicate that cobalt or zinc are bound by three cysteine residues and one histidine in the metal-binding site of the "LID" domain. The sequence (129)Cys-X-5-His-X-15-Cys-X-2-Cys of the AK from D. gigas is involved in metal coordination and represents a new type of binding motif that differs from other known zinc-binding sites of AK. Cobalt and zinc play a structural role in stabilizing the LID domain. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Conrath, Katja, Alice S. Pereira, Carlos E. Martins, Cristina G. Timoteo, Pedro Tavares, Silvia Spinelli, Joerg Kinne, Christophe Flaudrops, Christian Cambillau, Serge Muyldermans, Isabel Moura, Jose J. G. Moura, Mariella Tegoni, and Aline Desmyter. "{Camelid nanobodies raised against an integral membrane enzyme, nitric oxide reductase}." Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society. 18 (2009): 619-628. Abstract
Nitric Oxide Reductase (NOR) is an integral membrane protein performing the reduction of NO to N2O. NOR is composed of two subunits: the large one (NorB) is a bundle of 12 transmembrane helices (TMH). It contains a b type heme and a binuclear iron site, which is believed to be the catalytic site, comprising a heme b and a non-hemic iron. The small subunit (NorC) harbors a cytochrome c and is attached to the membrane through a unique TMH. With the aim to perform structural and functional studies of NOR, we have immunized dromedaries with NOR and produced several antibody fragments of the heavy chain (VHHs, also known as nanobodies (TM)). These fragments have been used to develop a faster NOR purification procedure, to proceed to crystallization assays and to analyze the electron transfer of electron donors. BIAcore experiments have revealed that up to three VHHs can bind concomitantly to NOR with affinities in the nanomolar range. This is the first example of the use of VHHs with an integral membrane protein. Our results indicate that VHHs are able to recognize with high affinity distinct epitopes on this class of proteins, and can be used as versatile and valuable tool for purification, functional study and crystallization of integral membrane proteins.
Rivas, Maria G., Cristiano S. Mota, Sofia R. Pauleta, Marta S. P. Carepo, Filipe Folgosa, Susana L. A. Andrade, Guy Fauque, Alice S. Pereira, Pedro Tavares, Juan J. Calvete, Isabel Moura, and Jose J. G. Moura. "{Isolation and characterization of a new Cu-Fe protein from Desulfovibrio aminophilus DSM12254.}." Journal Of Inorganic Biochemistry. 103 (2009): 1314-1322. Abstract
The isolation and characterization of a new metalloprotein containing Cu and Fe atoms is reported. The as-isolated Cu-Fe protein shows an UV-visible spectrum with absorption bands at 320 nm, 409 nm and 615 nm. Molecular mass of the native protein along with denaturating electrophoresis and mass spectrometry data show that this protein is a multimer consisting of 14+/-1 subunits of 15254.3+/-7.6 Da. Mössbauer spectroscopy data of the as-isolated Cu-Fe protein is consistent with the presence of [2Fe-2S](2+) centers. Data interpretation of the dithionite reduced protein suggest that the metallic cluster could be constituted by two ferromagnetically coupled [2Fe-2S](+) spin delocalized pairs. The biochemical properties of the Cu-Fe protein are similar to the recently reported molybdenum resistance associated protein from Desulfovibrio, D. alaskensis. Furthermore, a BLAST search from the DNA deduced amino acid sequence shows that the Cu-Fe protein has homology with proteins annotated as zinc resistance associated proteins from Desulfovibrio, D. alaskensis, D. vulgaris Hildenborough, D. piger ATCC 29098. These facts suggest a possible role of the Cu-Fe protein in metal tolerance.
Timoteo, Cristina G., Alice S. Pereira, Carlos E. Martins, Sunil G. Naik, Americo G. Duarte, Jose J. G. Moura, Pedro Tavares, Boi Hanh Huynh, and Isabel Moura. "{Low-Spin Heme b(3) in the Catalytic Center of Nitric Oxide Reductase from Pseudomonas nautica}." Biochemistry. 50 (2011): 4251-4262. Abstract
Respiratory nitric oxide reductase (NOR) was purified from membrane extract of Pseudomonas (Ps.) nautica cells to homogeneity as judged by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified protein is a heterodimer with subunits of molecular masses of 54 and 18 kDa. The gene encoding both subunits was cloned and sequenced. The amino acid sequence shows strong homology with enzymes of the cNOR class. Iron/heme determinations show that one heme c is present in the small subunit (NORC) and that approximately two heme b and one non-heme iron are associated with the large subunit (NORB), in agreement with the available data for enzymes of the cNOR class. Mossbauer characterization of the as-purified, ascorbate-reduced, and dithionite-reduced enzyme confirms the presence of three heme groups (the catalytic heme b(3) and the electron transfer heme b and heme c) and one redox-active non-heme Fe (Fe-B). Consistent with results obtained for other cNORs, heme c and heme b in Ps. nautica cNOR were found to be low-spin while FeB was found to be high-spin. Unexpectedly, as opposed to the presumed high-spin state for heme b(3), the Mossbauer data demonstrate unambiguously that heme b(3) is, in fact, low-spin in both ferric and ferrous states, suggesting that heme b(3) is six-coordinated regardless of its oxidation state. EPR spectroscopic measurements of the as-purified enzyme show resonances at the g similar to 6 and g similar to 2-3 regions very similar to those reported previously for other cNORs. The signals at g = 3.60, 2.99, 2.26, and 1.43 are attributed to the two charge-transfer low-spin ferric heme c and heme b. Previously, resonances at the g similar to 6 region were assigned to a small quantity of uncoupled high-spin Fe-III heme b(3). This assignment is now questionable because heme b(3) is low-spin. On the basis of our spectroscopic data, we argue that the g = 6.34 signal is likely arising from a spin spin coupled binuclear center comprising the low-spin Fe-III heme b(3) and the high-spin Fe-B(III). Activity assays performed under various reducing conditions indicate that heme b(3) has to be reduced for the enzyme to be active. But, from an energetic point of view, the formation of a ferrous heme-NO as an initial reaction intermediate for NO reduction is disfavored because heme [FeNO](7) is a stable product. We suspect that the presence of a sixth ligand in the Fe-II-heme b(3) may weaken its affinity for NO and thus promotes, in the first catalytic step, binding of NO at the Fe-B(II) site. The function of heme b(3) would then be to orient the Fe-B-bound NO molecules for the formation of the N-N bond and to provide reducing equivalents for NO reduction.
Folgosa, Filipe, Cristina M. Cordas, Joana A. Santos, Alice S. Pereira, Jose J. G. Moura, Pedro António Brito Tavares, and Isabel Moura. "{New spectroscopic and electrochemical insights on a class I superoxide reductase: Evidence for an intramolecular electron transfer pathway.}." Biochemical Journal (2011). Abstract
Superoxide reductases are enzymes involved in bacterial resistance to reactive oxygen species, catalyzing the reduction of superoxide anions to hydrogen peroxide. So far three structural classes have been identified. Class I enzymes have two iron-center containing domains. Most studies have been focused on the catalytic iron site (center II), but the role of center I is yet poorly understood. The possible roles of this iron site were approached by an integrated study using both classical and fast kinetics measurements as well as direct electrochemistry. A new heterometallic form of the protein with a zinc-substituted center I, maintaining the iron active site center II was obtained, resulting in a stable derivative useful for comparison with the native all-iron from. Second order rate constants for the electron transfer between reduced rubredoxin and the different SOR forms were determined to be 2.8x107 (M-1s-1) and 1.3x106 (M-1s-1) for SORFe(IIII)-Fe(II) and for SORFe(IIII)-Fe(III) forms respectively, and 3.2x106 (M-1s-1) for the SORZn(II)-Fe(III) form. The results obtained seem to indicate that center I transfers electrons from the putative physiologic donor, rubredoxin, to the catalytic active iron site (intramolecular process). In addition, electrochemical results show that conformational changes are associated to the redox state of center I, which may enable a faster catalytic response towards superoxide anion. The apparent rate constants calculated for the SOR-mediated electron transfer also support this observation.