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Almendra, MJ, CD Brondino, O. Gavel, AS Pereira, P. Tavares, S. Bursakov, R. Duarte, J. CALDEIRA, JJG Moura, and I. Moura. "{Purification and characterization of a tungsten-containing formate dehydrogenase from Desulfovibrio gigas}." Biochemistry. 38 (1999): 16366-16372. Abstract
An air-stable formate dehydrogenase (FDH), an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of formate to carbon dioxide, was purified from the sulfate reducing organism Desulfovibrio gigas (D. gigas) NCIB 9332. D. gigas FDH is a heterodimeric protein [alpha (92 kDa) and beta (29 kDa) subunits] and contains 7 +/- 1 Fe/protein and 0.9 +/- 0.1 W/protein, Selenium was not detected. The UV/visible absorption spectrum of D, gigas FDH is typical of an iron-sulfur protein. Analysis of pterin nucleotides yielded a content of 1.3 +/- 0.1 guanine monophosphate/mol of enzyme, which suggests a tungsten coordination with two molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide cofactors. Both Mossbauer spectroscopy performed on D. gigas FDH grown in a medium enriched with Fe-57 and EPR studies performed in the native and fully reduced state of the protein confirmed the presence of two [4Fe-4S] clusters. Variable-temperature EPR studies showed the presence of two signals compatible with an atom in a d(1) configuration albeit with an unusual relaxation behavior as compared to the one generally observed for W(V) ions.
Auchere, F., P. Raleiras, L. Benson, S. Venyaminov, P. Tavares, J. Moura, I. Moura, and F. Rusnak. "{Formation of a stable cyano-bridged dinuclear iron cluster following oxidation of the superoxide reductases from Treponema pallidum and Desulfovibrio vulgaris with K(3)Fe(CN)(6)}." Inorganic chemistry. 42 (2003): 938-940. Abstract
Superoxide reductases catalyze the monovalent reduction of superoxide anion to hydrogen peroxide. Spectroscopic evidence for the formation of a dinuclear cyano-bridged adduct after K(3)Fe(CN)(6) oxidation of the superoxide reductases neelaredoxin from Treponema pallidum and desulfoferrodoxin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris was reported. Oxidation with K(3)Fe(CN)(6) reveals a band in the near-IR with lambda(max) at 1020 nm, coupled with an increase of the iron content by almost 2-fold. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy provided additional evidence with CN-stretching vibrations at 2095, 2025-2030, and 2047 cm(-)(1), assigned to a ferrocyanide adduct of the enzyme. Interestingly, the low-temperature electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of oxidized TpNlr reveal at least three different species indicating structural heterogeneity in the coordination environment of the active site Fe ion. Given the likely 6-coordinate geometry of the active site Fe(3+) ion in the ferrocyanide adduct, we propose that the rhombic EPR species can serve as a model of a hexacoordinate form of the active site.
Auchere, F., R. Sikkink, C. Cordas, P. Raleiras, P. Tavares, I. Moura, and J. Moura. "{Overexpression and purification of Treponema pallidum rubredoxin; kinetic evidence for a superoxide-mediated electron transfer with the superoxide reductase neelaredoxin}." J Biol Inorg Chem. 9 (2004): 839-849. Abstract
{Superoxide reductases are a class of non-haem iron enzymes which catalyse the monovalent reduction of the superoxide anion O2- into hydrogen peroxide and water. Treponema pallidum (Tp), the syphilis spirochete, expresses the gene for a superoxide reductase called neelaredoxin, having the iron protein rubredoxin as the putative electron donor necessary to complete the catalytic cycle. In this work, we present the first cloning, overexpression in Escherichia coli and purification of the Tp rubredoxin. Spectroscopic characterization of this 6 kDa protein allowed us to calculate the molar absorption coefficient of the 490 nm feature of ferric iron