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Teixeira, M. G., F. Paolucci, M. Marcaccio, T. Aviles, C. Paradisi, F. Maran, and S. Roffia. "Electroinduced and spontaneous metal-halide bond dissociation in [Co(eta(5)-C5H5)(eta(3)-2-MeC3H4)I]." Organometallics. 17 (1998): 1297-1304. AbstractWebsite

The electrochemical behavior of the species [Co(eta(5)-C5H5)(eta(3)-2-MeC3H4)I] and [Co(eta(5)-C5H5)(eta(3)-2-MeC3H4)(ACN)](+) in ACN solutions, at 25 degrees C, is described. The kinetic analysis of the cyclic voltammetry curves indicates that the introduction of one electron in the former complex is concerted with the dissociation of the Co-I bond. The ensuing radical undergoes fast solvation to yield the solvato complex [Co(eta(5)-C5H5)(eta(3)-2-MeC3H4)(ACN)](.), which then acts as an efficient electron donor toward the starting material with the formation of[Co(eta(5)-C5H5)(eta(3)-2-MeC3H4)(ACN)](+); finally, the cation is electroreduced at the working potentials to conclude an overall autocatalytic sequence. The solvato complex [Co(eta(5)-C5H5)(eta(3)-2-MeC3H4)(ACN)](.), formed as a product of the above reduction process, can be reversibly reduced to the corresponding anion at more negative potentials. Confirmation of the above mechanism and of the fact that the solvato complex can act as a solution electron donor toward the starting material was obtained by studying the electrochemical behavior of the solvato complex itself and through calculations aimed to better define the dissociative electron-transfer process to [Co(eta(5)-C5H5)(eta(3)-2-MeC3H4)I]. The dissociation of the metal-halide bond in the neutral complex [Co(eta(5)-C5H5)(eta(3)-2-MeC3H4)I], with the formation of[Co(eta(5)-C5H5)(eta(3)-2-MeC3H4)(ACN)](+), was also found to occur spontaneously, in the bulk, through the observation of a progressive change of the cyclic voltammetric pattern. Support for the occurrence of the reaction between the starting complex and the solvent was confirmed by conductivity and spectroscopic measurements, which allowed the rate constant for the homogeneous solvolysis to be determined.

Aviles, T., A. Dinis, M. G. B. Drew, and V. Felix. "A novel infinite 1-D chain of Silver(I) bridged by trans-azobenzene." Monatsh Chem. 131 (2000): 1305-1310. AbstractWebsite

The self-assembly of Ag[BF(4)] with trans-azobenzene in dichloromethane yields a new coordination polymer ([Ag(mu -trans-azobenzene)H(2)O] [BF(4)])(n) which was characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction. The crystal consists of 1-D zigzag cationic chains made up from [Ag(H(2)O)](+) units linked by trans-azobenzene bridges and BF(4)(-) anions. Hydrogen bonding interactions between the chains and BF(4)(-) anions occur via intermolecular C-H . . .F and O-H . . .F contacts, and the crystal displays a 2-D supramolecular structure.

Pinto, P., M. J. Calhorda, V. Felix, T. Aviles, and M. G. B. Drew. "Syntheses and crystal structures of polynuclear Cu(I) complexes containing the 1,1 '-bis(diphenylphosphino)-ferrocene ligand." Monatsh Chem. 131 (2000): 1253-1265. AbstractWebsite

The reaction between [Cu(NCMe)(4)][PF6] and 1,1'-bis-(diphenylphosphino)-ferrocene (dppf) in several ratios, solvents, and conditions led to the synthesis and structural characterization of the Cu(I) complexes [Cu(dppf)(Odppf)] [PF6] (1), [(dppf)Cu(mu -dppf)Cu(dppf)][PF6](2) (2), and [(dppf)Cu(mu -Cl)(2)Cu(dppf)] (3). Although 1 and the cation in 2 were known, the first was structurally characterized for the first time, exhibiting a significant asymmetry in the coordination sphere of Cu(I)) owing to the presence of oxygen. In 2, the PF6- anion led to an interesting crystal packing with large open channels containing water. Finally, DFT calculations on a model of 3 showed that its HOMO exhibits, besides Fe, a significant Cu and Cl character, which is reflected in its electrochemical properties.

Aviles, T., A. Dinis, M. J. Calhorda, P. Pinto, V. Felix, and M. G. B. Drew. "Synthesis, X-ray structure, and theoretical studies of novel cationic mono-cylopentadienyl complexes of Co(III): the orthometalation of trans-azobenzene." J Organomet Chem. 625 (2001): 186-194. AbstractWebsite

New cationic mono-cyclopentadienyl complexes of Co(III) containing mono or bidentate nitrogen donor ligands of general formula [Co(eta (5)-C5H5)(PPh3)L-2][BF4](2) (L = NC-CH3, 2, and NC = Ph, 3) or [Co(eta (5)-C5H5)(PPh3)(L-L)[BF4](2), [L-L = 2,2 ' -bisimidazole (H(2)biim) (4) and dipyridylamine [HN(NC5H5)(2)] (5) have been synthesised by the stoichiometric reaction of the Co(III) complex Co(eta (5)-C5H5)(PPh3)I-2 (1), with Ag[BF4] and the appropriate ligand in CH2Cl2. Under the same conditions and using;trans-azobenzene as a ligand, an orthometalation reaction took placet giving the new compound [Co(eta (5)-C5H5)(PPh3)(kappa -C,kappa -N-C6H4N=NPh)][BF4] (6) in high yield. The structural characterisation of compounds 4 and 6, and of the starting compound Co(eta (5)-C5H5)(PPh3)I-2 (1) was done by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. DFT calculations (ADF program) were performed in order to understand the orthometallation reaction. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Montilla, F., E. Clara, T. Aviles, T. Casimiro, A. A. Ricardo, and M. N. da Ponte. "Transition-metal-mediated activation of arylisocyanates in supercritical carbon dioxide." J Organomet Chem. 626 (2001): 227-232. AbstractWebsite

The reactivity of arylisocyanates in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)) was studied using the easily available complexes CpCo(CO)(2), CpCoPPh3Me2 and Ni(cod)(2) as catalysts. A study of the solubility of the catalysts in scCO(2) was undertaken in all cases. The complex CpCo(CO)(2) is very soluble, 1.7 x 10(-1) mol kg(-1), while CpCoPPh3Me2 has a lower solubility, 7.2 x 10(-3) mol kg(-1), and Ni(cod)(2) is insoluble in scCO(2). For comparison purposes, the reactions were performed in parallel in scCO(2), using toluene as a solvent and just with the neat liquid arylisocyanate. Reactions in scCO(2) either do not take place at all, when CpCo(CO), is used as catalyst, or occur with low yields affording the trimer of the corresponding arylisocyanate when CpCoPPh3Me2 or Ni(cod)(2) act as catalysts. No incorporation of CO2 into the organic substrate was observed. Better conversions to triarylisocyanate were obtained when the reactions were performed by direct mixture of the liquid arylisocyanate ArNCO (Ar = Ph, p-CH3C6H4, p-CH3OC6H4) and the catalyst. Using toluene as a solvent, the yields of the trimers were lower than those obtained in neat arylisocyanate, and in some cases they were not formed at all. For instance in the reaction of CpCo(CO), and tolylisocyanate either under stoichiometric or catalytic conditions the trimer is not obtained, instead the compound H2R3N3C2O2 (R = CH3C6H4), was isolated in low yield. In the reaction of Ni(cod)(2)/PPh3 with phenylisocyanate, the trimer was formed but in low yield. The lower yields of the trimers observed when the reactions were performed in scCO(2) or in toluene, compared to that observed in neat arylisocyanates, indicates that the decrease in reactivity is due to a decrease in concentration. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Montilla, F., T. Aviles, T. Casimiro, A. A. Ricardo, and M. N. da Ponte. "CPCO(CO)(2)-catalysed cyclotrimerisation of alkynes in supercritical carbon dioxide." J Organomet Chem. 632 (2001): 113-118. AbstractWebsite

The reactivity of mono-substituted HC=CR (R =Ph. a; CH2OH, b; CH2CH2CH2CH3, c) and di-substituted RC=CR (R = CH2CH3, d; CO2CH3, e; Ph. f) acetylenes was studied in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)) using the easily available complex CpCo(CO)(2) as catalyst. The reaction of phenylacetylene produced a mixture of the isomeric cyclotrimers 1,3,5- (2a) and 1.2,4-triphenylbenzene (2a '). in a 1:5 ratio, and traces of cobaltcyclopentadienone complexes CPCO(eta (4)-C4H2[Ph](2)CO) (6a, mixture of isomers). The possible product formed by the incorporation of CO, to alkynes, i.e. diphenylpyrone (7a) was not observed. The reaction of the cobaltacyclopentadiene complex CpCo(1.4-sigma -C-4[Ph](4))(PPh)(3) (8f), in scCO(2), was performed. No insertion of CO2 into the Co-C a-bond to form tetraphenylpyrone (7f) by reductive elimination was observed, instead the cobaItcyclobutadiene Complex CpCo(eta (4)-C-4[Ph](4)) (9f) was formed. In the reactions with other alkynes, lower yields were obtained in general, except in the cyclotrimerisation of the highly activated alkyne, propargyl alcohol (b). Reaction of the non-activated alkynes, 1-hexyne (c) and 3-hexyne (d), produced complex mixtures of cobalt complexes in low yield in which the alkyne was coordinated to cobalt. Finally, the highly hindered diphenylacetylene (f) gave a mixture of the known Complexes CpCo(eta (4)-C-4[Ph](4)) (9f) and CpCo(eta (4)- C-4[Ph](4)CO) (6f) in agreement with the results observed in conventional organic solvents. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V, All rights reserved.

Sellin, M. F., I. Bach, J. M. Webster, F. Montilla, V. Rosa, T. Aviles, M. Poliakoff, and D. J. Cole-Hamilton. "Hydroformylation of alkenes in supercritical carbon dioxide catalysed by rhodium trialkylphosphine complexes." J Chem Soc Dalton (2002): 4569-4576. AbstractWebsite

Rhodium complexes modified by simple trialkylphosphines can be used to carry out homogeneous hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)). The catalyst derived from PEt3 is more active and slightly more selective for the linear products in scCO2 than in toluene, and under the same reaction conditions [100degreesC, 40 bar of CO/H-2 (1:1)] P(OPri)(3) is also an effective ligand giving good catalyst solubility and activity. Other ligands such as PPh3, POct(3), PCy3, and P(4-C6H4But)(3) are less effective because of the low solubility of their rhodium complexes in scCO(2). P(4-C6H4SiMe3)(n) Ph3-n (n = 3 or 1) and P(OPh)(3) impart activity despite their complexes only being poorly soluble in scCO(2). Under subcritical conditions, using PEt3 as the ligand, C7-alcohols from hydrogenation of the first formed aldehydes are the main products whilst above a total pressure of 200 bar, where the solution remains supercritical (monophasic) throughout the reaction, aldehydes are obtained with 97% selectivity. High pressure IR studies in scCO(2) using PEt3 as the ligand are reported.

Aviles, T., A. Dinis, J. O. Goncalves, V. Felix, M. J. Calhorda, A. Prazeres, M. G. B. Drew, H. Alves, R. T. Henriques, V. da Gama, P. Zanello, and M. Fontani. "Synthesis, X-ray structures, electrochemistry, magnetic properties, and theoretical studies of the novel monomeric [CoI2(dppfO(2))] and polymeric chain [CoI2(mu-dppfO(2))(n)]." J Chem Soc Dalton (2002): 4595-4602. AbstractWebsite

The new compound [Co(eta(5)-C5H5)(dppf-P,P')I]I, 1, was synthesised by the stoichiometric reaction of the Co(III) complex [Co(eta(5)-C5H5)(CO)I-2], 2, with 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene (dppf) in CH2Cl2, and was characterised by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. Exposure to air of THF or CH2Cl2 solutions of compound 1 gave, in an unexpected way, a polymeric chain comprising bridging 1,1'-bis(oxodiphenylphosphoranyl) ferrocene (dppfO(2)) joining tetrahedral Co(II) units [CoI2(mu-dppfO(2))](n), 3. Attempts to obtain the polymeric chain 3 by the direct reaction of dppfO(2) with CoI2, in CH2Cl2, gave instead the monomeric compound [CoI2(dppfO(2))], 4, in which dppfO2 is coordinated in a chelating mode. The structural characterisation of compounds 2, 3, and 4 was carried out by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The magnetic behaviour of [CoI2(dppfO(2))] and [CoI2(mu-dppfO(2))](n) was studied, and the results are consistent with tetrahedral S = 3/2 Co-II, possessing a (4)A(2) ground state, and S = 0 Fe-II. In these compounds, Co-II negative zero field splittings were determined from an analysis of the magnetic susceptibility temperature dependence, with D/k = -13 and -14 K for CoI2(dppfO(2)) and [CoI2(mu-dppfO(2))](n), respectively. DFT calculations were performed in order to understand the electronic structure of [Co(eta(5)-C5H5)(dppf-P,P')I]I, 1, as well as that of the paramagnetic specie [CoI2(dppfO(2))], 4. The [CoI2(mu-dppfO(2))](n) chain was also analysed and found to behave very similarly to the monomeric iodine derivative 4. The calculations showed the unpaired electrons to be localized on the Co(II) centre in all these species. The rather complicated electrochemical behaviour exhibited by the dppf complex [Co-III(eta(5)-C5H5)(dppf-P,P')I]I and by [Co(dppfO(2))I-2] is discussed.

Montilla, F., V. Rosa, C. Prevett, T. Aviles, M. N. da Ponte, D. Masi, and C. Mealli. "Trimethylsilyl-substituted ligands as solubilizers of metal complexes in supercritical carbon dioxide." Dalton T (2003): 2170-2176. AbstractWebsite

The SiMe3 group (TMS), introduced as a substituent at the cyclopentadienyl ligand, is found to magnify the solubility of the corresponding metal complexes in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)). This is verified from comparative solubility measurements of the species (eta(5)-Me-3 SiC5H4)MoO2 Cl, 1a, (eta(5)-Me3SiC5H4)(2)ZrCl2, 2a, and (eta(5)-Me3SiC5H4)Co(CO)I-2.0.5(I-2), 3a (newly synthesised), and of their unsubstituted precursors 1b-3b, respectively. In spite of the increased solubility, the chemical, structural and reactivity properties of the TMS derivatives are scarcely affected. Confirmation comes from a detailed study of the cobalt complex 3a that includes X-ray structural determination. The geometry is most similar to that of the precursor 3b while an apparently different Co-CO interaction is observed in the carboxylated analogue [(eta(5)-PhCH2CO2C5H4)Co(CO) I-2, 3c]. The problem is computationally tackled by using the DFT B3LYP method. The optimised geometries of the simplified models of 3a-3c are all very similar. In particular, the computed stretching frequency of the unique CO ligand is consistent with the insignificant influence of the TMS group while it suggests a reduced amount of metal back-donation in 3c. It is inferred that the TMS complexes 1a-3a, while having higher solubility in scCO2, maintain almost unaltered the electronic and chemical features of their parent compounds. In particular, the role of 1a-3a as catalysts, that is well documented for homogeneous solutions, remains unaltered in the very different scCO(2) environment. The assumption is experimentally validated for 1a by performing with the latter two classic catalytic processes. The first process is the oxidation of PPh3 that is achieved by using molecular oxygen as an oxidant. The second example concerns the epoxidation of cyclohexene achieved in presence of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP).

Montilla, F., A. Galindo, V. Rosa, and T. Aviles. "Effect of trimethylsilyl substitution on the chemical properties of triarylphosphines and their corresponding metal-complexes: Solubilising effect in supercritical carbon dioxide." Dalton T (2004): 2588-2592. AbstractWebsite

The donor strengths of the following triarylphosphine ligands P(Ar)(2)(Ar') (Ar = Ar' = 4-Me3SiC6H4, 1b; 4-Me3CC6H4, 1d; 4-F3CC6H4, 1e; Ar = C6H5, Ar' = 4-Me3SiC6H4, 1c) have been evaluated experimentally and theoretically. The measurements of the J(P-Se) coupling constants of the corresponding synthesised selenides Se=P(Ar)(2)(Ar'), 2b, c and the DFT calculation of the energies of the phosphine lone-pair ( HOMO) reveal insignificant influence on the electronic properties of the substituted phosphines when the trimethylsilyl group is attached to the aryl ring, in marked contrast to the strong electronic effect of the trifluoromethyl group. These triarylphosphine ligands P(Ar)(2)(Ar') reacted with (eta(5)-C5H5)Co(CO)(2), (eta(5)-C5H5)Co(CO)I-2 or PdCl2 to yield the new compounds (eta(5)-C5H5)Co(CO)[P(Ar)(2)(Ar')], 3b, d; (eta(5)-C5H5)COI[P(Ar)(2)(Ar')], 4b-e; and PdCl2[P(Ar)(2)(Ar')](2), 5b, c, respectively. These complexes have been characterized and their spectroscopic properties compared with those reported for the known triphenylphosphine complexes. Again, the contrast of the P-31 NMR and C-13 NMR chemical shifts or C-O or M-Cl stretching frequencies, when applied, does not show an important electronic effect on the metal complex of the trimethylsilyl substituted phosphines with respect to P(C6H5)(3) derivatives. Solubility measurements of complexes 3a and 3b in scCO(2) were performed. We conclude that Me3Si groups on the triarylphosphine improve the solubility of the corresponding metal complex in scCO(2).