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Mateus, O., Natário C., Araújo R., & Castanhinha R. (2008).  A new specimen of spinosaurid dinosaur aff. Baryonyx from the Early Cretaceous of Portugal. Livro de Resumos do X Congresso Luso-Espanhol de Herpetologia. 51., Jan Abstract

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Mateus, O., Natario C., Araujo R., & Castanhinha R. (2008).  A new specimen of spinosaurid dinosaur aff. Baryonyx from the Early Cretaceous of Portugal. (Universidade de, Coimbra, Ed.).Livro de Resumos do X Congresso Luso-Espanhol de Herpetologia. 51., Coimbra Abstract
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Mateus, O., Natario C., Araujo R., & Castanhinha R. (2008).  A new specimen of spinosaurid dinosaur aff. Baryonyx from the Early Cretaceous of Portugal. Livro de Resumos do X Congresso Luso-Espanhol de Herpetologia. 51–51., Coimbra Abstract
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Mateus, O., Araújo R., Natário C., & Castanhinha R. (2011).  A new specimen of the theropod dinosaur Baryonyx from the early Cretaceous of Portugal and taxonomic validity of Suchosaurus. Zootaxa. 2827, 54–68., Jan Abstractmateus_et_al_2011_a_new_specimen_of_the_theropod_dinosaur_baryonyx_from_the_early_cretaceous_of_portugal_and_taxonomic_validity_of_suchosaurus.pdf

Although the Late Jurassic of Portugal has provided abundant dinosaur fossils, material from the Early Cretaceous is scarce. This paper reports new cranial and postcranial material of the theropod dinosaur Baryonyx walkeri found in the Barremian (Papo Seco Formation) of Portugal. This specimen, found at Praia das Aguncheiras, Cabo Espichel, consists of a partial dentary, isolated teeth, pedal ungual, two calcanea, presacral and caudal vertebrae, fragmentary pubis, scapula, and rib fragments. It represents the most complete spinosaurid yet discovered in the Iberian Peninsula and the most complete dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Portugal. This specimen is confidently identified as a member of Baryonychinae due to the presence of conical teeth with flutes and denticles in a dentary rosette. The specimen ML1190 shares the following characteristics with Baryonyx walkeri: enamel surface with small (nearly vertical) wrinkles, variable denticle size along the carinae, 6–7 denticles per mm, wrinkles forming a 45 degree angle near the carinae, and tooth root longer than crown. In addition, dubious taxa based on teeth morphology such as Suchosaurus cultridens (Owen, 1840–1845), and Suchosaurus girardi (Sauvage 1897–98; Antunes & Mateus 2003) are discussed, based on comparisons with well-known material such as Baryonyx walkeri Charig & Milner, 1986. Suchosaurus cultridens and S. girardi are considered as nomina dubia due to the lack of diagnostic apomorphies, but both specimens are referred to Baryonychinae incertae sedis.

Mateus, O., Araújo R., Natário C., & Castanhinha R. (2011).  A new specimen of the theropod dinosaur Baryonyx from the early Cretaceous of Portugal and taxonomic validity of Suchosaurus. Zootaxa. 54-68., Number 2827 Abstract
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Hendrickx, C., Aráujo R., & Mateus O. (2015).  The non-avian theropod quadrate I: Standardized terminology with an overview of the anatomy and function. PeerJ. 2015, , Number 9 Abstract
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Hendrickx, C., Araújo R., & Mateus O. (2014).  The nonavian theropod quadrate II: systematic usefulness, major trends and cladistic and phylogenetic morphometrics analyses. PeerJ PrePrints. 2, e380v2., 2014 AbstractWebsite

The skull-bone quadrate in nonavian theropods is very diverse morphologically alongside the disparity of the group as a whole. However this disparity has been underestimated for taxonomic purposes. In order to evaluate the phylogenetic potential and investigate the evolutionary transformations of the quadrate, we conducted a Catalano-Goloboff phylogenetic morphometric analysis as well as a cladistic analysis using 98 discrete quadrate related characters. The cladistic analysis provides a fully resolved tree mirroring to some degree the classification of nonavian theropods. The quadrate morphology by its own provides a wealth of data with strong phylogenetic signal and allows inference of major trends in the evolution of this bone. Important synapomorphies include: for Abelisauroidea, a lateral ramus extending to the ectocondyle; for Tetanurae, the absence of the lateral process; for Spinosauridae, a medial curvature of the ventral part of the pterygoid ramus occurring just above the mandibular articulation; for Avetheropoda, an anterior margin of the pterygoid flange formed by a roughly parabolic margin; and for Tyrannosauroidea, a semi-oval pterygoid flange shape in medial view. The Catalano-Goloboff phylogenetic morphometric analysis reveals two main morphotypes of the mandibular articulation of the quadrate linked to function. The first morphotype, characterized by an anteroposteriorly broad mandibular articulation with two ovoid/subcircular condyles roughly subequal in size, is found in Ceratosauria, Tyrannosauroidea and Oviraptorosauria. This morphotype allows a very weak displacement of the mandible laterally. The second morphotype is characterized by an elongate and anteroposteriorly narrow mandibular articulation and a long and parabolic/sigmoid ectocondyle. Present in Megalosauroidea, Carcharodontosauridae and Dromaeosauridae, this morphotype permits the lower jaw rami to be displaced laterally when the mouth opened.

Hendrickx, C., Araújo R., & Mateus O. (2012).  The nonavian theropod quadrate: systematics usefulness, major trends and phylogenetic morphometrics analysis. : Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Program and Abstracts, 2012, p.110. ISSN 1937-2809 Abstracthendrickx_araujo__mateus_2012_quadrate_theropods_svp_2012_abstract_book_meeting_abstracts.pdf.pdf

The quadrate in nonavian theropods is incredibly diverse morphologically; however this morphological disparity has been underestimated for taxonomic purposes. The quadrate topological homologies and anatomy, as well as the terminology, among nonavian theropod clades are reviewed. In order to evaluate the phylogenetic potential and investigate the evolutionary transformations of the quadrate, we conducted a Catalano-Goloboff phylogenetic morphometric analysis using 3 morphometric characters, a total of 28 landmarks coded for 23 taxa, as well as a cladistic analysis using 115 discrete quadrate-related characters coded for 43 taxa. The cladistic analysis provides a fully resolved tree mirroring the current classification of nonavian theropods. The quadrate morphology by its own provides a wealth of data with strong phylogenetic signal. Several unambiguous synapomorphies support nonavian theropod relationships and the resulting consensus tree allows inference of major trends in the evolution of this bone. Important synapomorphies include: for Abelisauridae, a lateral ramus extending to the ectocondyle; for Tetanurae, the absence of the lateral process; for Spinosauridae, a medial curvature of the ventral part of the pterygoid ramus occurring just above the mandibular articulation; for Neotetanurae, an anterior margin of the pterygoid flange formed by a roughly parabolic margin; and for Tyrannosauroidea, a semi-oval pterygoid flange shape in medial view. The Catalano-Goloboff phylogenetic morphometric analysis reveals two main morphotypes of the mandibular articulation of the quadrate linked to function. The first morphotype, characterized by an anteroposteriorly broad mandibular articulation with two ovoid/subcircular condyles roughly subequal in size, is found in Ceratosauria, Tyrannosauroidea and Oviraptorosauria. This morphotype allows a very weak displacement of the mandible laterally. The second morphotype is characterized by an elongate and anteroposteriorly narrow mandibular articulation and a long and parabolic/sigmoid ectocondyle. Present in Megalosauroidea, Allosauroidea and Dromaeosauridae, this morphotype permits the lower jaw rami to be displaced laterally when the mouth opened.

Mateus, O., & Antunes M. T. (2002).  Novos vestígios de dinossauros saurópodes do Jurássico Superior da Lourinhã (Portugal). Congresso Ibérico de Herpetologia. , Évora Abstract
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Mateus, O., & Antunes M. T. (2002).  Novos vestígios de dinossauros saurópodes do Jurássico Superior da Lourinhã (Portugal). Congresso Ibérico de Herpetologia. , Évora Abstract
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Mateus, O., & Antunes M. T. (2002).  Novos vestígios de dinossauros saurópodes do Jurássico Superior da Lourinhã (Portugal).. Congresso Ibérico de Herpetologia. , Évora, Portugal Abstract

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Jacobs, L. L., Mateus O., Polcyn M. J., Schulp A. S., Antunes M. T., Morais M. L., & da Silva Tavares T. (2006).  The occurrence and geological setting of Cretaceous dinosaurs, mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, and turtles from Angola. Paleont. Soc. Korea. 22(1), 91-110. Abstractjacobs_mateus-et_al_2006_angola.pdf

Vertebrate-bearing fossiliferous outcrops of Cretaceous age in sub-Saharan Africa are rare because of younger superficial deposits, vegetation cover, and the widespread occurrence of Precambrian metamorphic plateau basement comprising much of the continent. However, one area of extensive marine and nonmarine
Cretaceous exposures is found between the plateau and the coast in Angola. The Angolan margin was formed in conjunction with the breakup of Gondwana and subsequent growth of the South Atlantic. Cretaceous deposits are constrained in age by the emplacement of oceanic crust, which began no later than magnetozone M3
(approximately 128 Ma, Barremian). Shallow marine facies are exposed in sea cliffs but equivalent facies become increasingly terrestrial inland. Few vertebrate fossils have been described from Angola aside from sharks.
Notable exceptions are the late Turonian mosasaurs Angolasaurus bocagei and Tylosaurus iembeensis from northern Angola. Those taxa are significant because they are among the earliest derived mosasaurs. Recent field work led to the discovery of a new skull of Angolasaursus as well as sharks, fish, plesiosaurs, the skull of a new taxon of turtle, additional mosasaurs, and the articulated forelimb of a sauropod dinosaur, the first reported dinosaur from Angola. In southern Angola, marine sediments spanning the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary are found.

Jacobs, L. L., Mateus O., Polcyn M. J., Schulp A. S., Antunes M. T., Morais M. L., & Tavares T. S. (2006).  The occurrence and geological setting of Cretaceous dinosaurs, mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, and turtles from Angola. Journal of the Paleontological Society of Korea. 22, , Number 1 Abstract
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Jacobs, L. L., Mateus O., Polcyn M. J., Schulp A. S., Antunes M. T., Morais M. L., & da Silva Tavares T. (2006).  The occurrence and geological setting of Cretaceous dinosaurs, mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, and turtles from Angola. JOURNAL-PALEONTOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF KOREA. 22, 91–91., Number 1 Abstract
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Mateus, O., Jacobs L., Polcyn M., Schulp A. S., Vineyard D., Neto A. B., & Antunes M. T. (2009).  The oldest African eucryptodiran turtle from the Cretaceous of Angola. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 54, 581-588., Jan: Univ Agostinho Neto, Univ Nova Lisboa, Museu Lourinha, Acad Ciencias Lisboa, Nat Hist Museum Maastricht, So Methodist Univ Abstractmateus_et_al_2009_the_oldest_african_angolachelys_angola_turtle.pdfWebsite

A new Late Cretaceous turtle, Angolachelys mbaxi gen. et sp. nov., from the Turonian (90 Mya) of Angola, represents the oldest eucryptodire from Africa. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Angolachelys mbaxi as the sister taxon of Sandownia harrisi from the Aptian of Isle of Wight, England. An unnamed turtle from the Albian Glen Rose Formation of Texas (USA) and the Kimmeridgian turtle Solnhofia parsonsi (Germany), are successively more distant sister taxa. Bootstrap analysis suggests those four taxa together form a previously unrecognized monophyletic clade of marine turtles, herein named Angolachelonia clade nov., supported by the following synapomorphies: mandibular articulation of quadrate aligned with or posterior to the occiput, and basisphenoid not visible or visibility greatly reduced in ventral view. Basal eucryptodires and angolachelonians originated in the northern hemisphere, thus Angolachelys represents one of the first marine amniote lineages to have invaded the South Atlantic after separation of Africa and South America.

Mateus, O., & Antunes M. T. (2000).  On the presence of Ceratosaurus sp. (Dinosauria: Theropoda) in the Late Jurassic of Portugal. Abstract volume of the 31st International Geological Congress. , Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Abstract
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Mateus, O., & Antunes M. T. (2000).  On the presence of Ceratosaurus sp. (Dinosauria: Theropoda) in the Late Jurassic of Portugal. Abstract volume of the 31st International Geological Congress. , Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Abstract
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Gaspar, A., Mateus O., & Almada F. (2007).  Os argumentos criacionistas em face da evidência científica. Evolução e Criacionismo: Uma Relação Impossível. 197-237., Lisboa: Quasi ed.gasparmateusealmada2007argumentosevo.pdf
Gaspar, A., Mateus O., & Almada F. (2007).  Os argumentos criacionistas em face da evidência científica. Evolução e Criacionismo: Uma Relação Impossível. 197-237., Lisboa Abstract
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Beccari, V., Pinheiro F. L., Nunes I., Anelli L. E., Mateus O., & Costa F. R. (2021).  Osteology of an exceptionally well-preserved tapejarid skeleton from Brazil: Revealing the anatomy of a curious pterodactyloid clade. PLOS ONE. 16(8), e0254789 - ., 2021/08/25: Public Library of Science Abstractbeccari_et_al_2021.pdfWebsite

A remarkably well-preserved, almost complete and articulated new specimen (GP/2E 9266) of Tupandactylus navigans is here described for the Early Cretaceous Crato Formation of Brazil. The new specimen comprises an almost complete skeleton, preserving both the skull and post-cranium, associated with remarkable preservation of soft tissues, which makes it the most complete tapejarid known thus far. CT-Scanning was performed to allow the assessment of bones still covered by sediment. The specimen can be assigned to Tupa. navigans due to its vertical supra-premaxillary bony process and short and rounded parietal crest. It also bears the largest dentary crest among tapejarine pterosaurs and a notarium, which is absent in other representatives of the clade. The new specimen is here regarded as an adult individual. This is the first time that postcranial remains of Tupa. navigans are described, being also an unprecedented record of an articulated tapejarid skeleton from the Araripe Basin.

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Mateus, O., & Azinheira C. (1996).  Passeriformes nidificantes da Ribeira da Viscossa (Évora). (Spea, Ed.).Livro de resumos do I Congresso de Ornitologia. Abstract
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Ceríaco, L. M. P., Gutiérrez E. E., Dubois A., Abdala C. S., Alqarni A. S., Adler K., et al. (2016).  Photography-based taxonomy is inadequate, unnecessary, and potentially harmful for biological sciences. Zootaxa. 4196(3), 435 - 445., 2016 AbstractWebsite
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Ceríaco, L. M. P., Gutiérrez E. E., Dubois A., Abdala C. S., Alqarni A. S., Adler K., et al. (2016).  Photography-based taxonomy is inadequate, unnecessary, and potentially harmful for biological sciences. Zootaxa. 4196, 435-445., Number 3 Abstract
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Jacobs, L., Polcyn M., Araújo R., Strganac C., & Mateus O. (2010).  Physical drivers of evolution and the history of the marine tetrapod fauna of Angola. Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. 110A., Jan Abstractjacobs_et_al_mateus_2010_physical_drivers_marine_tetrapod_fauna_of_angola_svp10abstracts.pdf

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Polcyn, M. J., Jacobs L. L., Ara´ujo R., Schulp A. S., & Mateus O. (2014).  Physical drivers of mosasaur evolution. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 400, 17-27. Abstractpolcyn_et_al_2014_physical_drivers_mosasaurs.pdf

Mosasaurs are marine squamates with a 32.5 million-year history from their appearance at 98 Ma to their extinction at the K-Pg boundary (65.5 Ma). Using a database of 43 generic and 94 species-level taxa, we compare the taxonomic diversity and patterns of morphological disparity in mosasaurs with sea level, sea surface temperature, and stable carbon isotope curves for the Upper Cretaceous to explore factors that may have influenced their evolution. No single factor unambiguously accounts for all radiations, diversification, and extinctions; however, the broader patterns of taxonomic diversification and
morphological disparity point to niche differentiation in a “fishing up” scenario under the influence of “bottom-up” selective pressures. The most likely driving force in mosasaur evolution was high productivity in the Late Cretaceous, driven by tectonically controlled sea levels and climatically controlled ocean stratification and nutrient delivery. When productivity collapsed at the end of the Cretaceous, coincident with bolide impact, mosasaurs became extinct.

Polcyn, M. J., Jacobs L. L., Araújo R., Schulp A. S., & Mateus O. (2014).  Physical drivers of mosasaur evolution. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 400, 17-27. Abstract
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Araújo, R., Polcyn M., Jacobs L. L., Mateus O., & Schulp A. S. (2011).  Plesiosaur structural extreme from the Maastrichtian of Angola. 71st Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. 63., Jan: Abstracts of the 71st Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Abstractaraujo_et_al_mateus_2011_plesiosaur_extreme_angola_svp11abstracts.pdf

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Smith, A., Araújo R., & Mateus O. (2010).  A plesiosauroid skull from the Toarcian (Lower Jurassic) of Alhadas, Portugal. 70th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. 166A., October 10 - 13t, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA Abstractsmith_araujo__mateus_2010_plesiosauroid_skull_toarcian_jurassic_alhadas_portugal_svp10abstracts.pdf

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Araújo, R., Jacobs L., Polcyn M., Mateus O., & Schulp A. (2010).  Plesiosaurs from the Maastrichtian of Bentiaba, Namibe Province, Angola. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology 70th Annual Meeting.. Abstractaraujo_polcyn_mateus__schulp_2010_plesiosaurs_from_maastrichtian_of_angola_svp10abstracts.pdf

Recent excavations at the Maastrichtian locality of Bentiaba, Namibe Province, in the southern part of Angola, have yielded high quality and partially articulated plesiosaur specimens that indicate at least three taxa were present. A new elasmosaurid is the most abundant and well-preserved plesiosaur taxon at Bentiaba. It is known from a complete articulated paddle and other elements of the skeleton, many of which remain to be collected. The most diagnostic elements so far recovered are the complete pelvic and pectoral girdles, which indicate that the Bentiaba elasmosaurid is probably a new genus because it bears an asymmetrical ventral process of the coracoids, a complete cordiform posterior coracoid vacuity, and pronounced excavation of the anterior border of the coracoids, among other characters. A polycotylid is [...]

Milàn, J., Clemmensen L. B., Adolfssen J. S., Estrup E. J., Frobøse N., Klein N., Mateus O., & Wings O. (2012).  A preliminary report on coprolites from the Late Triassic part of the Kap Stewart Formation, Jameson Land, East Greenland. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin. 57, 203-205. Abstractmilan_et_al_2012_greenland_coprolites_triassic.pdf

The basal part of the Triassic-Jurassic (Rhaetian-Sinemurian) Kap Stewart Formation, exposed at Jameson Land, East Greenland, yields an extensive coprolite collection from black, parallel-laminated mudstone (“paper shale”), representing an open lacustrine system. Preliminary investigations show three different types of coprolites: elongated cylindrical masses, composed of irregularly wrapped layers; elongated cylindrical masses with constriction marks; and spirally-coiled specimens.

Araújo, R., Mateus O., Walen A., & Christiansen N. (2009).  Preparation techniques applied to a stegosaurian Dinosaur from Portugal. Journal of Paleontological Techniques. 5, 1-24., Jan Abstractarajomateusetal2009.preparationtechn.pdfWebsite

General vertebrate paleontological techniques that have been used in the Museum of Lourinhã (Portugal) are presented here, in particular those applied to a stegosaurian dinosaur skeleton, Miragaia longicollum. A monolith jacket technique using polyurethane foam and plaster is presented. Mechanical preparation
techniques combining the use of an electric grinder and airscribes proved effective during the initial phases of preparation on well-preserved bone embedded in hard matrix. We also present a technique to mould monoliths in the early stages of preparation, creating a thin silicone rubber mould in several contiguous
parts. To mould and cast monoliths before removing individual bones has proven valuable for the preservation of taphonomic data and for display purposes. Polyurethane resin combined with plaster is useful for small casts, while polyester resin applied in four layers is the preferred technique for larger casts.
The four layers are composed of: a first thin layer of polyester resin with bone colour; followed by another layer of polyester resin of sediment colour and containing glass microspheres to make it thicker. The third layer is composed of fibre glass chopped strands, and the fourth is composed of fibre glass mats embedded
in plain polyester resin. 3D scanning and digitization techniques where tested for the storage of osteological information of individual bones and proved very promising.

Araujo, R., Mateus O., Walen A., & Christiansen N. (2009).  Preparation techniques applied to a stegosaurian Dinosaur from Portugal: excavation, laboratory mechanical and chemical preparation, moulding and casting, 3D scanning. Journal of Paleontological Techniques 5: 22.. 22. Abstract
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Hendrickx, C., Mateus O., & Araújo R. (2015).  A proposed terminology of theropod teeth (Dinosauria, Saurischia). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. e982797. Abstracthendrickx_et_al_2015_theropod_teeth_svp.pdfWebsite

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Hendrickx, C., Mateus O., & Araujo R. (2015).  A proposed terminology of theropod teeth (Dinosauria, Saurischia). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 35, , Number 5 Abstract
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Castanhinha, R., Araujo R., & Mateus O. (2008).  Reptile Egg Sites From Lourinhã Formation, Late Jurassic, Portugal. Livro de Resumos de Tercer Congreso Latinoamericano de Paleontologia de Vertebrados. , Neuquén, Argentina Abstractcastanhinha_et_al_2008_reptile_egg_sites_from_lourinha_formation_late_jurassic_portugal.pdf

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Castanhinha, R., Araujo R., & Mateus O. (2008).  Reptile Egg Sites From Lourinhã Formation, Late Jurassic, Portugal. Livro de Resumos de Tercer Congreso Latinoamericano de Paleontología de Vertebrados. , Neuquén, Argentina Abstract
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Castanhinha, R., Araujo R., & Mateus O. (2008).  Reptile Egg Sites From Lourinhã Formation, Late Jurassic, Portugal. Livro de Resumos de Tercer Congreso Latinoamericano de Paleontología de Vertebrados. , Neuquén, Argentina Abstract
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Young, M. T., Hua S., Steel L., Foffa D., Brusatte S. L., Thüring S., Mateus O., Ignacio-Ruiz Omeñaca J., Lepage Y., Havilk P., & Andrade M. B. (2014).  Revision of the Late Jurassic teleosaurid genus Machimosaurus (Crocodylomorpha, Thalattosuchia). Royal Society Open Science. 1(140222), 1-42.young_et_al_2014_machimosaurus_crocodylomorph_revision.pdf
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Cunha, P. P., Mateus O., & Antunes M. T. (2004).  The sedimentology of the Paimogo dinosaur nest site (Portugal, Upper Jurassic). 23 rd IAS Meeting of Sedimentology. 93., Coimbra, Portugal Abstractcunha_p_p_2004_-_the_sedimentology_of_the_paimogo_dinosaur_nest_site_portugal10467.pdf

Sedimentological features of the Paimogo site, 6 km NNW of Lourinhã, western central Portugal are presented. More than one hundred theropod dinosaur eggs (some containing embryo bones) ascribed to Lourinhanosaurus antunesi Mateus 1998, three crocodilian eggs and some other fossils were found at the 32 m2 excavated area of the egg-bearing horizon (Mateus et al., 1998). The stratigraphic position of the site is the Praia Azul member (Lourinhã Formation), roughly corresponding to the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian boundary or, more likely lowermost Tithonian. The maximum flooding surface of the basinal transgressive event where the horizon is located corresponds to the base of the H depositional sequence defined by Pena dos Reis et al. (2000) and probably correlates to the base of sequence Ti1 identified within western European basins (Jacquin et al., 1998), dated as 150 Ma. Possibly during the normal river discharge, the theropods congregated in nesting colonies at the backswamp of an extensive flood plain with small meandering channels and freshwater ponds. There are no evidences that the nest was dug or the eggs buried. The eggs have probably been laid on a flat, shaded, muddy area near the bank of a large pond. It is probable that the eggs have not been actively incubated. The larger number of eggs suggest that they were laid near simultaneously by, at least, six females. The fossil record shows that crocodilians, mammals, gastropods and fish were also present. A flood event occurred when theropod embryos had attained a late stade of ontogenetic development, probably just before hatching. The overflow from a nearby channel flooded the plain, including the area where the eggs had been laid. The sheet flood flowing over the nest resulted into the scattering and breaking up of some dinosaur eggs. Eggshell and embryos skeletal parts fragments were displaced to an adjacent area where, due to hydrodynamic decline, the flow submerged other clutches and moderately dragged their eggs. The flooding caused the drowning of the embryos and covered the eggs with fine-grained sediment, hiding them from predators and scavengers. Hydrodynamic interpretation of the arrangement of the theropod eggs and egg-fragments suggests that the flow came from the NW. When the floodwaters receded, the fine-grained deposits became exposed to subaerial weathering. Although the sediment surface was often wet and small bodies of standing water may still have existed, the sediments were oxidized and plant remains have consequently been destroyed. Some carbonate cementation and redenning resulted from pedogenesis under alternating dry and moist conditions, in a semiarid/ sub-tropical climate under seasonal changing, contrasting conditions. The thick, stratigraphically above and below the nesting horizon mudrocks indicate a long persistence of periodic flooding, alternating with pedogenesis. During the early stages of diagenesis, vertical pressure crushed the eggs. Silt penetration into the inner part of each egg inhibited later flattening during the burial process.

Cunha, P. P., Mateus O., & Antunes M. T. (2004).  The sedimentology of the Paimogo dinosaur nest site (Portugal, Upper Jurassic). 23 rd IAS Meeting of Sedimentology. 93., Coimbra, Portugal Abstract
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Cunha, P. P., Mateus O., & Antunes M. T. (2004).  The sedimentology of the Paimogo dinosaur nest site (Portugal, Upper Jurassic). 23 rd IAS Meeting of Sedimentology. 93–93., Coimbra, Portugal Abstract
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Mateus, O., & Araújo R. (2008).  Stone-splitters and expansive demolition agents: breaking big rocks with little effort on vertebrate paleontological excavations. Journal of Paleontological Techniques. 3, 1-6. Abstractmateus__araujo_2008_stone-splitters_and_expansive_demolition_agents_jpt_n003_oct.pdfWebsite

Two techniques (stone-splitters and demolition agents) are revealed to be efficient methods for breaking large stone blocks in extreme paleontological excavation. In certain conditions – where security factors, permission issues, terrain conditions, rock properties are problematic – the traditional methods for breaking large rock blocks cannot be applied (e.g. crane trucks or explosives). Using an expansive demolition agent or stone-splitters after drilling equidistant holes not only allows a cheap, quick and safe solution but also permits precise removal of up to 9 ton blocks. Stone-splitters are a three-part tool that when inserted linearly and equidistantly along a brittle rock mass cause a precise fracture.

Martins, R. M. S., Beckmann F., Castanhinha R., Mateus O., Araújo R., & Pranzas P. K. (2012).  Synchrotron radiation-based micro-computed tomography applied to the characterization of dinosaur fossils from the Lourinhã Formation. 1 st . Meeting of Synchrotron Radiation Users from Portugal. 1-2., Caparica, Portugalmartins_et_al_2012_tomography_enurs_martins-rui_dinosaurfossils.pdf
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Polcyn, M. J., Jacobs L. L., Schulp A. S., Mateus O., & Araújo R. (2015).  Tethyan and Weddellian biogeographic mixing in the Maastrichtian of Angola. Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. 196., Dallas, TXpolcyn_etal2015_mix_fauna_angola_svp_abstract.pdf
Mateus, O., Taquet P., Antunes M. T., Mateus H., & Ribeiro V. (1998).  Theropod dinosaur nest from Lourinhã, Portugal. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 18, 61A., Number (Suppl. 3) Abstractmateus_et_al_1998_theropod_dinosaur_nest_from_lourinha_portugal_svp.pdfWebsite

More than 100 well preserved dinosaur eggs have been discovered in the Upper Jurassic levels (Tithonian) of Lourinhã, Portugal. The eggshels dispersed in a big area with 11 meters in the highest diameter with high concentration in the middle.
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