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Teixeira, Paula, Helena Lopes, Ibrahim Gulyurtlu, and Nuno Lapa. "Uncertainty estimation to evaluate mass balances on a combustion system." Accreditation and Quality Assurance. 17.2 (2012): 159-166. AbstractWebsite

Mass balances of ash and potassium for a fluidized bed combustor were performed incorporating measurement uncertainties. The total output mass of ash or a chemical element should be equal to the mass in the input fuel; however, this is not often achieved. A realistic estimation of recovery uncertainty can support the reliability of a mass balance. Estimation of uncertainty helps to establish a reliable evaluation of the recovery ratio of ash mass and elemental mass. This may clarify whether any apparent lack in closing the mass balance can be attributed to uncertainties. The evaluation of measurement uncertainty for different matrices, namely coal, biomass, sand and ashes from different streams was based on internal quality control data and external quality control data, namely analysis of samples from proficiency tests or use of a certified reference material. The evaluation of intermediate precision and trueness allowed the estimation of measurement uncertainty. Due to the different physic and chemical characteristics of the studied matrices, the uncertainty of precision was evaluated using R-charts of data obtained from the analysis of duplicates for the majority of samples. This allowed evaluating sample heterogeneity effects. The instrumental acceptance criterion was also considered and included in the combined uncertainty. The trueness was evaluated using data from several proficiency tests and from analysis of a certified reference material or sample spiking. Statistically significant bias was included.

Teixeira, P., H. Lopes, I. Gulyurtlu, and N. Lapa. "Use of chemical fractionation to understand partitioning of biomass ash constituents during co-firing in fluidized bed combustion." Fuel. 101 (2012): 215-227. AbstractWebsite

Three species of biomass origin (straw pellets, olive cake and wood pellets) and two coals from different countries (Coal Polish and Coal Colombian) have been studied to understand the fate of their ash forming matter during the combustion process and to investigate the influence of co-firing biomass with coal. Three different approaches to investigate the ash behaviour were employed: (1) chemical fractionation analysis to evaluate the association/reactivity of ash forming elements in the fuels as a prediction tool, (2) establishment of elements partitioning in ash streams produced in the combustion and co-combustion trials, and (3) evaluation of enrichment factors of elements in the ash streams. The chemical fractionation analysis was applied to all fuels used to evaluate how the association/reactivity of elements making up ash may influence their behaviour during combustion. Combustion tests were carried out on a pilot scale fluidized bed combustor (FBC). Four ash streams were obtained at different locations. The uncertainty of measurements was estimated allowing a critical evaluation of mass balances over the combustion system and the partitioning of elements in the ash streams. The enrichment factors of elements in the several ash streams were estimated, incorporating uncertainties associated with analytical measurements. Results obtained showed that for FBC the relation between the chemical fractionation and the experimental partitioning is strongly affected by elutriation of particles. The element enrichment factor estimated for each ash stream, using Al as a reference element, revealed better correlations with the elements reactivity obtained by chemical fractionation because it overcomes particles elutriation effects. Nevertheless, it was observed that the reactivity estimated by chemical fractionation could not be solely interpreted as tendency of the elements to volatilize on FBC system, as reaction in bed zone of boiler may also occur retaining reactive elements.

Barbosa, Rui, Diogo Dias, Nuno Lapa, and Benilde Mendes. "Using biomass ashes in concretes exposed to salted water and freshwater: mechanical and chemical properties." Advanced Materials Research. 587 (2012): 16-20. AbstractWebsite

The main aim of this work was to assess the possibility of using biomass ashes as substitutes for cement and natural aggregates in concretes without compromising their mechanical and chemical properties. Thirteen concrete formulations were prepared with different percentages of bottom and fly ashes produced at a forest biomass power plant. These formulations were submitted to mechanical compressive strength assays, after 28, 60 and 90 days of maturation. The reference formulation F1 that was produced without biomass ashes and one formulation incorporating fly and bottom ashes, F4, were selected for further characterization. After 90 days of maturation, the selected formulations were submitted to the leaching test described in the European Standard EN12457-2 (L/S ratio of 10 L/kg, in a batch extraction cycle of 24h) by using two different leaching agents: a synthetic marine medium (ASPM medium) and a synthetic freshwater medium (ISO 6341 medium). The eluates produced were submitted to chemical characterization which comprised a set of metals (As, Sb, Se, Cu, Zn, Ba, Hg, Cd, Mo, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cr VI, Al, Fe, Mg, Na, K and Ca), pH, SO42-, F-, dissolved organic carbon, chlorides, phenolic compounds and total dissolved solids. The substitution of 10% cement by fly ashes has not promoted the reduction of the compressive strength of concrete. The new formulation F4 has presented emission levels of chemical species similar or even lower to those observed for the reference formulation F1.