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Bernardo, M., N. Lapa, M. Gonçalves, B. Mendes, F. Pinto, I. Fonseca, and H. Lopes. "Physico-chemical properties of chars obtained in the co-pyrolysis of waste mixtures." Journal of Hazardous Materials. 219-220 (2012): 196-202. AbstractWebsite

The present work aims to perform a multistep upgrading of chars obtained in the co-pyrolysis of PE, PP and PS plastic wastes, pine biomass and used tires. The quality of the upgraded chars was evaluated by measuring some of their physico-chemical properties in order to assess their valorisation as adsorbents’ precursors. The crude chars were submitted to a sequential solvent extraction with organic solvents of increasing polarity (hexane, mixture 1:1 v/v hexane:acetone and acetone) followed by an acidic demineralization procedure with 1 M HCl solution. The results obtained showed that the upgrading treatment allow the recovery of 63–81% of the pyrolysis oils trapped in the crude chars and a reduction in the char's ash content in the range of 64–86%. The textural and adsorption properties of the upgraded chars were evaluated and the results indicate that the chars are mainly mesoporous and macroporous materials, with adsorption capacities in the range of 3.59–22.2 mg/g for the methylene blue dye. The upgrading treatment allowed to obtain carbonaceous materials with quality to be reused as adsorbents or as precursors for activated carbon.