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Bernardo, M., M. Gonçalves, N. Lapa, R. Barbosa, B. Mendes, F. Pinto, and I. Gulyurtlu. "Determination of aromatic compunds in leachates from pyrolysis solid residues using HS-GC-MS and DLLME-GC-MS." Talanta. 80.1 (2009): 104-108. AbstractWebsite

A method for the determination of 15 aromatic hydrocarbons in eluates from solid residues produced during the co-pyrolysis of plastics and pine biomass was developed. In a first step, several sampling techniques (headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), static headspace sampling (HS), and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) were compared in order to evaluate their sensitivity towards these analytes. HS-SPME and HS sampling had the better performance, but DLLME was itself as a technique able to extract volatiles with a significant enrichment factor.

HS sampling coupled with GC–MS was chosen for method validation for the analytes tested. Calibration curves were constructed for each analyte with correlation coefficients higher than 0.999. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.66–37.85 ng/L. The precision of the HS method was evaluated and good repeatability was achieved with relative standard deviations of 4.8–13.2%. The recoveries of the analytes were evaluated by analysing fortified real eluate samples and were in the range of 60.6–113.9%.

The validated method was applied in real eluate samples. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) were the compounds in higher concentrations.

The DLLME technique coupled with GC–MS was used to investigate the presence of less volatile contaminants in eluate samples. This analysis revealed the presence of significant amounts of alkyl phenols and other aromatic compounds with appreciable water solubility.

Bernardo, M., M. Gonçalves, N. Lapa, and B. Mendes. "Determination of alkylphenols in eluates from pyrolysis solid residues using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction." Chemosphere. 79.11 (2010): 1026-1032. AbstractWebsite

Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was applied for the determination of 11 alkylphenols in eluates of chars produced in the co-pyrolysis of different wastes.

The optimized DLLME procedure, 4 mL of sample solution, 15 μL of trichloroethylene as extraction solvent, 1 mL of acetone as dispersion solvent and addition of 15% (w/v) of NaCl, was validated. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors were in the range of 82–180. Calibration curves were constructed for each analyte in pure water in the concentration range of 0.5–8 μg/L with correlation coefficients higher than 0.999. The limits of detection were between 0.07 and 0.17 μg/L. The repeatability of the method was evaluated using water samples fortified with the analyte mixture at two concentration levels: the relative standard deviation (RSD) values were between 3.7% and 8.0% for a concentration of 0.5 μg/L, and between 4.2% and 6.4% for a concentration of 3 μg/L. The recoveries of the analytes evaluated by fortification of real eluate samples were in the range of 67.9–97.9% for eluate 1 (obtained from a decontaminated char) and in the range of 61.9–101.4% for eluate 2 (obtained from the untreated char). o-Methylphenol presented low recoveries for both eluates showing a possible matrix effect. The results obtained show that this method is adequate for the determination of alkylphenols in environmental aqueous samples and presents itself as a fast and inexpensive technique, using minor amounts of organic solvents.

Dunea, Daniel, Adrian Dunea, Nuno Lapa, and Virgil Moise. "Developing a remote laboratory for environmental monitoring using mobile technology." Scientific Bulletin of Electrical Engineering Faculty. 2 (2008): 69-75. Abstractdunea_et_al_2008_developing_a_remote_laboratory_for_environ_monitoring_using_mobile_technology.pdfWebsite

This paper presents the mobile technology utilization in improving the remote access to the data acquisition processes of several automated monitoring system for air quality, water quality, and crop canopy microclimate. The system facilitates mobile environmental management and decision making by using in-situ measurements, GSM/GPRS informational fluxes, Pocket PCs, dGPS and mobile GIS resources. Data is retrieved via GSM/GPRS data modem to remote computer using digital (GSM) phone network. The main outcomes of this study were as follows: 1. designing the hardware, communication and software infrastructure of the system using telemetry features, 2. establishing the wireless connections and remote access from PDAs to the measurement servers, 3. programming and testing specific control virtual instruments (Vis) in NI LabVIEWTM, 4. obtaining a portable solution of statistical analysis and survey with PDA Vi (Virtual Instruments) interfaces for Pocket PC to gather, store, customize and report data combined with statistical processing functions, and 5. identifying mobile GIS applications for the environmental protection. The remote-accessing of the GIS server features, provided in-situ electronically reviews, mark up, and precise measurements of the site pollution plans. One possible solution to overcome the PDA hardware and software restraints is enabling the remote access and control of the DAQ and GIS software resources of the measurement server via internet.