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Santos, Susana, Nuno Lapa, Andreia Alves, João Morais, and Benilde Mendes. "Analytical methods and validation for determining trace elements in red wines." Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B: Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes. 48.5 (2013): 364-375. AbstractWebsite

The objective of this work is to quantify As, Hg, Cd, Ni and Pb in Portuguese red wines. First, the methods for the quantification of trace elements in red wines were validated. Several pre-treatments were compared, namely a pre-digestion process with HNO3, a pre-oxidation step with H2O2, and a spiking step of wine samples with a known concentration of the trace elements analyzed. Except for As, it was determined that the quantification of the trace elements does not require a pre-digestion process with HNO3. For all of the trace elements analyzed, a pre-oxidation step with H2O2 may enable an accurate quantification. The techniques chosen for the quantification of trace elements were hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) for As and Hg, electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) for Cd, and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for Ni and Pb. In the second stage of this work, 25 Portuguese red wines spanning all of the red wine-producing regions were analyzed for all of the five trace elements referred to above. Only Cd and Pb have shown concentrations above the limit values defined by the “Organization Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin.” The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) equation was used to determine in which wine-producing regions that wine consumption can be a problem for public health in terms of the concentrations of the five trace elements analyzed. THQ values have indicated that for the universe of the 25 red wines analyzed no region produces wines that can pose problems for public health, when the Portuguese red wine standard consumption is considered.

Santos, Susana, Débora Azeitona, Nuno Lapa, João Morais, Helena Lopes, and Benilde Mendes Study on the effect of thermal pre-treatments in the thermophilic anaerobic digestion of a potato peel waste. Proceedings of the International Anaerobic Digestion Symposium within the BioGasWorld 2013. Berlin, Germany: German Society for Sustainable Biogas and Bioenergy Utilisation, 2013. Abstractbiogas_world_2013_santos_et_al_2013.pdf

This work aimed to study the effect of different pre-treatments applied to a potato peel residue, in a thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (AD) process. All samples were subjected to a mechanical pre-treatment through milling to a particle size below 2 mm. The thermal pre-treatments applied consisted of autoclaving the residue at a gauge pressure of 1.2 bar, under a temperature of 122°C, and for 20, 35 and 55 minutes: assays E122.20, E122.35 and E122.55, respectively. The control assay was performed on a ground residue, which was not submitted to any thermal pre-treatment. All pre-treated residues were subjected to an AD process in a CSTR reactor at 49±1°C. The experimental data showed that the highest methane percentages were very similar (about 92% v/v) for all samples submitted to the thermal pre-treatments. For the control assay, the highest percentage of methane was 87.9% (v/v). The highest biogas yields were recorded in the trial E122.35 (646±50 cm3.g-1 CODremoved), against only 250±20 cm3.g-1 CODremoved for the control assay. The highest biogas yields for VSremoved were attained in the assays E122.55 and E122.35, with values of 646±48 cm3.g-1 VSremoved and 634±59 cm3.g-1 VSremoved, respectively. Globally, the yields registered for the assay E122.35 were similar to those determined in the assay E122.55. Due to the lower energy consumption during the pre-treatment performed in the assay E122.35, this was considered to be the most suitable pre-treatment for this type of residue.

Santos Oliveira, J. F., N. Lapa, and J. Morais Eutrofização: a flor da água. Lisboa: IPQ/EPAL, 1999.Website
Santos Oliveira, J. F., B. Mendes, and N. Lapa Resíduos: Gestão, Tratamento e sua Problemática em Portugal. Lisboa: Lidel, 2009.Website