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Book
Lanca, M. C., C. J. Dias, D. K. Dasgupta, J. Marat-Mendes, and Ieee Ieee Comparative study of dielectric relaxation spectra of electrically and thermally aged low density polyethylene., 2003. AbstractWebsite

Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films were thermally aged in a sodium chloride aqueous solution at constant temperature (thermal aging). Some of the samples were simultaneously immersed in solution and subjected to an electric AC field (electrical aging). The dielectric relaxation spectra at 30 degreesC in the range of 10(-5) Hz to 10(5) Hz were obtained for unaged and aged samples. For the low frequency (LF) region (10(-5) Hz to 10(-1) Hz) the time domain technique was used. A lock-in amplifier was used for the 10(-1) Hz to 10(1) Hz medium frequency (MF) region. While for the high frequency (HF), 10(-1) Hz to 10(5) Hz, RLC bridge measurements were performed. The main differences can be seen between electrically, thermally aged and unaged LDPE in the HF and LF regions. The LF peak is a broad peak related to localized space charge injection driven by the electric field. For electrically aged samples this peak increases in an earlier stage of electrical aging, decreasing afterwards. While in thermally aged samples the peak amplitude always increases with aging time. Finally the HF shows the beginning of a peak due to the gamma and beta transitions. This peak decreases with aging disappearing for the most aged samples.

Lanca, M. C., C. J. Dias, D. K. Dasgupta, J. Marat-Mendes, and Ieee Ieee Comparative study of dielectric relaxation spectra of electrically and thermally aged low density polyethylene., 2003. AbstractWebsite

Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films were thermally aged in a sodium chloride aqueous solution at constant temperature (thermal aging). Some of the samples were simultaneously immersed in solution and subjected to an electric AC field (electrical aging). The dielectric relaxation spectra at 30 degreesC in the range of 10(-5) Hz to 10(5) Hz were obtained for unaged and aged samples. For the low frequency (LF) region (10(-5) Hz to 10(-1) Hz) the time domain technique was used. A lock-in amplifier was used for the 10(-1) Hz to 10(1) Hz medium frequency (MF) region. While for the high frequency (HF), 10(-1) Hz to 10(5) Hz, RLC bridge measurements were performed. The main differences can be seen between electrically, thermally aged and unaged LDPE in the HF and LF regions. The LF peak is a broad peak related to localized space charge injection driven by the electric field. For electrically aged samples this peak increases in an earlier stage of electrical aging, decreasing afterwards. While in thermally aged samples the peak amplitude always increases with aging time. Finally the HF shows the beginning of a peak due to the gamma and beta transitions. This peak decreases with aging disappearing for the most aged samples.

Lanca, M. C., E. R. Neagu, J. N. Marat-Mendes, and Ieee Comparative study of space charge in aged low-density polyethylene and crosslinked polyethylene., 2004. AbstractWebsite

Polyethylene is one of the most widely used polymeric insulators in medium and high voltage power cables. However the importance of space charge distribution and its influence on the electrical aging in this polymer is not fully understood. The very good insulating properties of the material implying very long relaxation times (few days and even longer are usual) and low currents (few pA or below) make individual measurements of isothermal charge/discharge currents and thermostimulated currents difficult to analyze and reproduce. A single type of measurements does not take into account the space charge that remains trapped for long times. A combined procedure of isothermal and non-isothermal current measurements developed for high insulating polymers was used for low density polyethylene (LDPE) and crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) films electrically aged. The press-molded LDPE and XLPE films were electrically aged under similar conditions using an AC electric field while immersed in a sodium chloride aqueous solution at constant temperature (electro-thermal aging). The use of the combined procedure for current measurement allowed obtaining information about space charge traps, activation energies and relaxation times for both LDPE and XLPE. This data was used to compare electrical aging under similar conditions for the two types of polyethylene.

Lanca, M. C., E. R. Neagu, J. N. Marat-Mendes, and Ieee Comparative study of space charge in aged low-density polyethylene and crosslinked polyethylene., 2004. AbstractWebsite

Polyethylene is one of the most widely used polymeric insulators in medium and high voltage power cables. However the importance of space charge distribution and its influence on the electrical aging in this polymer is not fully understood. The very good insulating properties of the material implying very long relaxation times (few days and even longer are usual) and low currents (few pA or below) make individual measurements of isothermal charge/discharge currents and thermostimulated currents difficult to analyze and reproduce. A single type of measurements does not take into account the space charge that remains trapped for long times. A combined procedure of isothermal and non-isothermal current measurements developed for high insulating polymers was used for low density polyethylene (LDPE) and crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) films electrically aged. The press-molded LDPE and XLPE films were electrically aged under similar conditions using an AC electric field while immersed in a sodium chloride aqueous solution at constant temperature (electro-thermal aging). The use of the combined procedure for current measurement allowed obtaining information about space charge traps, activation energies and relaxation times for both LDPE and XLPE. This data was used to compare electrical aging under similar conditions for the two types of polyethylene.

Lanca, M. C., M. Fu, E. Neagu, L. A. Dissado, J. Marat-Mendes, A. Tzimas, and S. Zadeh Comparative study of space charge in the polymeric insulation of power cables using PEA, isothermal and non-isothermal currents measurements., 2005. AbstractWebsite

An understanding of space charge build-up in the polymeric insulation of power cables is important in determining how aging occurs and progresses and, also in predicting cable lifetime. In this investigation electric-field induced space charge in peelings from XLPE (cross-linked polyethylene) cables was measured using two different methods: the pulsed electro-acoustic technique (PEA) and the combined procedure of isothermal and non-isothermal charging/discharging currents (FTSDC). These two methods allow the study of space charge in highly insulating materials. Also, since electric fields of different orders of magnitude are applied to the sample in the two methods, it is possible to analyze different characteristics of the space charge traps. Prior to the measurements the samples were subjected to conditioning to remove volatiles. Cable peelings from various brands aged under different conditions (including field aged and thermally aged samples) were studied as received from the manufacturers. Some of the samples have undergone further ageing in AC electric field (50Hz) for 1000h to see the influence of further ageing on space charge build-up. The results for the different types of samples are compared in an attempt to correlate different ageing parameters.

Neagu, E. R., C. J. Dias, M. C. Lanca, R. Igreja, P. Inacio, J. N. Marat-Mendes, and Ieee Discrimination between Space Charge and Dipolar Contributions in Ferroelectric Polymers., 2011. AbstractWebsite

The final thermally stimulated discharge current method allows a better selection of the experimental conditions for sample polarization. By decreasing the ratio between the charging time and the discharging time, the apparent peak is of the same order of magnitude as the genuine peaks and there is only a partial overlap between then. Two peaks have been identified for polyamide 11, one associated with the glass transition around 60 degrees C and the second associated with the Curie transition around 96 degrees C.

Neagu, E. R., R. M. Neagu, M. C. Lanca, A. Vassilikou-Dova, and J. N. Marat-Mendes Identification of an apparent peak by use of the final thermally stimulated discharge current technique., 2005. AbstractWebsite

The final thermally stimulated discharge current (FTSDC) technique can be used to analyze charge trapping and transport in insulating materials. The experimental conditions can be selected so that the FTSDC is mainly determined by the space charge detrapping. Measurements of the FTSDC in a wide temperature range including the local (secondary) beta relaxation and the non-local (primary) cc relaxation, for different polymers, demonstrate the existence of an apparent peak. The shift of peak temperature T-m with respect to the charging temperature T-p is analyzed. The interval T-m - T-p decreases from about 25 K to zero, as T-p approaches the glass transition T-g. T-m - T-p is lower for materials of lower conductivity. The peak width at the half maximum intensity decreases as Tp increases and the thermal apparent activation energy increases. The variations are not monotonous revealing the temperature range where the molecular motion is stronger and consequently the charge trapping and detrapping processes are affected by the strong thermal motion.

Pedrosa, A., M. C. Lanca, J. P. Borges, E. R. Neagu, C. J. Dias, J. N. Marat-Mendes, and Ieee Influence of Polarization on the Bioactivity of Nanopowders of Hydroxyapatite., 2011. AbstractWebsite
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Lanca, M. C., I. Franco, J. M. Mendes, and Ieee SIMULATION OF THE FERROELECTRIC SWITCHING OF PVDF AND ITS COPOLYMERS., 1992. AbstractWebsite
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Lanca, M. C., I. Franco, J. M. Mendes, and Ieee SIMULATION OF THE FERROELECTRIC SWITCHING OF PVDF AND ITS COPOLYMERS., 1992. AbstractWebsite
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Lanca, M. C., E. R. Neagu, and J. N. Marat-Mendes Studies of space charge in electrically aged low density polyethylene., 2002. AbstractWebsite

Space charge in electrically aged LDPE was studied using a recently developed technique combining isothermal charging and discharging with non-isothermal measurements. Samples were aged in a NaCl aqueous solution at 40degreesC for 1500h under an AC field of 6MV/m (50Hz). The samples were then isothermally DC charged and discharged (both currents recorded). Next a non-isothermal experiment with constant heating rate was performed. Finally the sample was kept at the highest temperature and the final isothermal discharge current registered. The last step has to be carried on for long time to ensure an almost complete discharge of the remnant charge so that results become reproducible and possible to analyze. Selective charging (careful choice of the field, temperature and the ratio of charging/discharging times) revealed the presence of different trapping sites. From the analysis of the isothermal and non-isothermal data the relaxation times and activation energies could be obtained.

Lanca, M. C., E. R. Neagu, and J. N. Marat-Mendes Studies of space charge in electrically aged low density polyethylene., 2002. AbstractWebsite

Space charge in electrically aged LDPE was studied using a recently developed technique combining isothermal charging and discharging with non-isothermal measurements. Samples were aged in a NaCl aqueous solution at 40degreesC for 1500h under an AC field of 6MV/m (50Hz). The samples were then isothermally DC charged and discharged (both currents recorded). Next a non-isothermal experiment with constant heating rate was performed. Finally the sample was kept at the highest temperature and the final isothermal discharge current registered. The last step has to be carried on for long time to ensure an almost complete discharge of the remnant charge so that results become reproducible and possible to analyze. Selective charging (careful choice of the field, temperature and the ratio of charging/discharging times) revealed the presence of different trapping sites. From the analysis of the isothermal and non-isothermal data the relaxation times and activation energies could be obtained.

Lanca, M. C., J. Domingues, and I. Franco Study of fractal properties in Lichtenberg figures., 1995. AbstractWebsite
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Lanca, M. C., J. Domingues, and I. Franco Study of fractal properties in Lichtenberg figures., 1995. AbstractWebsite
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Neagu, E. R., R. M. Neagu, M. C. Lanca, and J. N. Marat-Mendes The time as a parameter to investigate the landscape of the apparent activation energies in the final thermally stimulated discharge current measurements., 2005. AbstractWebsite

The experimental results obtained in a wide range of temperatures, for polyethylene terephthalate, demonstrate that the apparent activation energy changes when the charging (polarization) time or the isothermal discharging time, prior to the final thermally stimulated discharge current measurement, are used as variable parameters. Consequently, the charging and/or discharging time can be used as a variable parameter to investigate the landscape of the apparent thermal activation energies. A continuous distribution of the traps in the range from 0.4 to 3 eV was observed. The experimental results demonstrate that there is a range of experimental conditions for which the thermal activation energy is independent of the experimental parameter values. This is the activation energy value which should be used to characterize a certain mechanism.

Book Chapter
Lanca, M. C., and J. Marat-Mendes. "Dielectric breakdown statistics of polyethylene for progressively-censored data." Advanced Materials Forum Ii. Eds. R. Martins, E. Fortunato, I. Ferreira, and C. Dias. Vol. 455-456. Materials Science Forum, 455-456. 2004. 602-605. Abstract

The dielectric breakdown of thin films of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) electrically aged in an aqueous solution of NaCl under an AC electric field was investigated. A two-parameter Weibull function was used for the dielectric breakdown time to failure. The probability of failure for a sample was obtained by the White method for progressively censored data. Samples aged at different temperatures were compared. The results show that initially the samples aged at lower temperature (approximate to25degreesC) are more prone to fail, while those aged at higher temperature (50degreesC) fail at longer times. This was attributed to a competition between oxidation and diffusion.

Lanca, M. C., and J. Marat-Mendes. "Dielectric breakdown statistics of polyethylene for progressively-censored data." Advanced Materials Forum Ii. Eds. R. Martins, E. Fortunato, I. Ferreira, and C. Dias. Vol. 455-456. Materials Science Forum, 455-456. 2004. 602-605. Abstract

The dielectric breakdown of thin films of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) electrically aged in an aqueous solution of NaCl under an AC electric field was investigated. A two-parameter Weibull function was used for the dielectric breakdown time to failure. The probability of failure for a sample was obtained by the White method for progressively censored data. Samples aged at different temperatures were compared. The results show that initially the samples aged at lower temperature (approximate to25degreesC) are more prone to fail, while those aged at higher temperature (50degreesC) fail at longer times. This was attributed to a competition between oxidation and diffusion.

Lanca, M. C., C. J. Dias, D. K. Dasgupta, and J. Marat-Mendes. "Dielectric properties of electrically aged low density polyethylene." Advanced Materials Forum I. Ed. T. Vieira. Vol. 230-2. Key Engineering Materials, 230-2. 2002. 396-399. Abstract

Low density polyethylene (LDPE) films kept in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, were aged under a high AC electrical field. The films were prepared from press moulding of LDPE pellets with small amounts of antioxidants. The dielectric spectra at 30 degreesC in the range of 10(-5) Hz to 105 Hz were obtained prior and after ageing. Three different experimental techniques were used to obtain the full spectrum. For the low frequency (LF) region (10(-5) Hz to 10(-1) Hz) the time domain technique was used (charge and discharge currents were also measured). The measuring device used for the 10(-1) Hz to 10(1) Hz medium frequency (MF) region was a lock-in amplifier. While for the high frequency (HF), 10(-1) Hz to 10(5) Hz, RLC bridge measurements were performed. Differences can be seen between aged and unaged PE. The region showing less changes with ageing is the MF region where the peak of the unaged samples seems to become less defined with ageing time. This peak is probably due to additives and impurities (such as antioxidants) that will tend to slowly diffuse out with time. The LF peak is a broad peak related to localised space charge injection driven by the electric field. This peak increases in an earlier stage of ageing decreasing afterwards possibly when the polymer becomes more conductive. Finally the HF shows the beginning of a peak due to gamma and beta transitions. The later is related to dipolar rotation of carbonyl groups in amorphous polymer regions, while the former is associated to crankshaft motions in the main polymer chain. This peak decreases with ageing disappearing for the most aged samples. This could also be explained if the sample becomes more conductive.

Lanca, M. C., C. J. Dias, D. K. Dasgupta, and J. Marat-Mendes. "Dielectric properties of electrically aged low density polyethylene." Advanced Materials Forum I. Ed. T. Vieira. Vol. 230-2. Key Engineering Materials, 230-2. 2002. 396-399. Abstract

Low density polyethylene (LDPE) films kept in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, were aged under a high AC electrical field. The films were prepared from press moulding of LDPE pellets with small amounts of antioxidants. The dielectric spectra at 30 degreesC in the range of 10(-5) Hz to 105 Hz were obtained prior and after ageing. Three different experimental techniques were used to obtain the full spectrum. For the low frequency (LF) region (10(-5) Hz to 10(-1) Hz) the time domain technique was used (charge and discharge currents were also measured). The measuring device used for the 10(-1) Hz to 10(1) Hz medium frequency (MF) region was a lock-in amplifier. While for the high frequency (HF), 10(-1) Hz to 10(5) Hz, RLC bridge measurements were performed. Differences can be seen between aged and unaged PE. The region showing less changes with ageing is the MF region where the peak of the unaged samples seems to become less defined with ageing time. This peak is probably due to additives and impurities (such as antioxidants) that will tend to slowly diffuse out with time. The LF peak is a broad peak related to localised space charge injection driven by the electric field. This peak increases in an earlier stage of ageing decreasing afterwards possibly when the polymer becomes more conductive. Finally the HF shows the beginning of a peak due to gamma and beta transitions. The later is related to dipolar rotation of carbonyl groups in amorphous polymer regions, while the former is associated to crankshaft motions in the main polymer chain. This peak decreases with ageing disappearing for the most aged samples. This could also be explained if the sample becomes more conductive.

Neagu, E. R., R. M. Neagu, C. J. Dias, M. C. Lanca, P. Inacio, and J. N. Marat-Mendes. "Electrical Method to Study the Weak Molecular Movements at Nanometric Scale in Low Mobility Materials." Advanced Materials Forum V, Pt 1 and 2. Eds. L. G. Rosa, and F. Margarido. Vol. 636-637. Materials Science Forum, 636-637. 2010. 430-436. Abstract

For the characterization of the new materials and for a better understanding of the connection between structure and properties it is necessary to use more and more sensible methods to study molecular movement at nanometric scale. This paper presents the experimental basis for a new electrical method to study the fine molecular movements at nanometric scale in dielectric materials. The method will be applied for polar and non-polar materials characterization. Traditionally, the electrical methods used to study the molecular movements are based on the movements of the dipoles that are parts of the molecules. We have proposed recently a combined protocol to analyze charge injection/extraction, transport, trapping and detrapping in low mobility materials. The experimental results demonstrate that the method can be used to obtain a complex thermogram which contains information about all molecular movements, even at nanoscopic level. Actually during the charging process we are decorating the structure with space charge and during the subsequent heating we are observing an apparent peak and the genuine peaks that are related to charge de-trapping determined by the molecular movement. The method is very sensitive, very selective and allows to determinate the parameters for local and collective molecular movements, including the temperature dependence of the activation energy and the relaxation time.

Lanca, M. C., S. Peuckert, E. R. Neagu, L. Gil, P. C. Silva, and J. Marat-Mendes. "Electrical Properties Studies of a Cork/TetraPak (R)/Paraffin Wax Composite." Advanced Materials Forum Iv. Eds. AT Marques, AF Silva, APM Baptista, C. Sa, FJLA Alves, LF Malheiros, and M. Vieira. Vol. 587-588. Materials Science Forum, 587-588. 2008. 613-617. Abstract

Lately the electrical and dielectric properties of cork and some cork-based materials (commercial and non-commercial) have been studied in order to understand their ability to store electrical charge. The main problem found so far is related to the water content in cork, only of a few % weight. but large enough to influence greatly the conductivity of cork and, consequently, the charge storage capability. To overcome this problem cork has been combined with hydrophobic materials. In this work a commercial wax (paraffin wax) was used to produce a cork/paraffin composite by hot pressing. After milled and mixed natural cork. TetraPak (R) containers waste and paraffin were pressed to make plaques of a new composite. Different concentrations of cork. TetraPak (R) and paraffin, different granules sire, different temperature and pressure were used to produce the samples. The electrical properties of the new composite were measured by the isothermal charging and discharging current method and the results compared to previously ones obtained for natural cork and other derivative products. The new composite has shown to have lower conductivity than the commercial agglomerate. which makes it a better material for charge storage.

Lanca, Carmo M., Stefan Peuckert, Eugen R. Neagu, Luis Gil, Paulo C. Silva, and Jose Marat-Mendes. "Electrical Properties Studies of a Cork/TetraPak (R)/Paraffin Wax Composite." Advanced Materials Forum Iv. Eds. AT Marques, AF Silva, APM Baptista, C. Sa, FJLA Alves, LF Malheiros, and M. Vieira. Vol. 587-588. Materials Science Forum, 587-588. 2008. 613-617. Abstract

Lately the electrical and dielectric properties of cork and some cork-based materials (commercial and non-commercial) have been studied in order to understand their ability to store electrical charge. The main problem found so far is related to the water content in cork, only of a few % weight. but large enough to influence greatly the conductivity of cork and, consequently, the charge storage capability. To overcome this problem cork has been combined with hydrophobic materials. In this work a commercial wax (paraffin wax) was used to produce a cork/paraffin composite by hot pressing. After milled and mixed natural cork. TetraPak (R) containers waste and paraffin were pressed to make plaques of a new composite. Different concentrations of cork. TetraPak (R) and paraffin, different granules sire, different temperature and pressure were used to produce the samples. The electrical properties of the new composite were measured by the isothermal charging and discharging current method and the results compared to previously ones obtained for natural cork and other derivative products. The new composite has shown to have lower conductivity than the commercial agglomerate. which makes it a better material for charge storage.

Lanca, Carmo M., Stefan Peuckert, Eugen R. Neagu, Luis Gil, Paulo C. Silva, Jose Marat-Mendes, AT Marques, AF Silva, APM Baptista, C. Sa, FJLA Alves, LF Malheiros, and M. Vieira. "Electrical Properties Studies of a Cork/TetraPak (R)/Paraffin Wax Composite." Advanced Materials Forum Iv. Vol. 587-588. 2008. 613-617. Abstract
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Mateo, J., M. C. Lanca, and J. Marat-Mendes. "Infrared spectroscopy studies of aged polymeric insulators." Advanced Materials Forum I. Ed. T. Vieira. Vol. 230-2. Key Engineering Materials, 230-2. 2002. 384-387. Abstract

Thin films of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) were aged under an AC electric field while kept in sodium chloride aqueous solution. After aging the samples showed water trees (localized damaged with the appearance of hydrophilic ramified structures whose size ranges from a few microns to I mm). Some of the samples suffered dielectric breakdown showing small channels (1-2 mm. diameter) crossing the film and sometimes also signs of carbonization. In order to identify the oxidation mechanisms contributing to aging, FTIR was used to analyze both unaged and aged specimens. Comparing between unaged and aged LDPE an increase in the FTIR spectrum for bands at 1720 cm(-1), 1640 cm(-1) and 1590 cm(-1) was visible for the aged samples. The first region corresponds to carbonyl groups (C=O bonds) resulting from oxidation (most probably ketones). While the second one is related to carbon double bonds formed due to chain scission. Finally the third one is due to carboxylates. For the XLPE the analysis is more difficult. Besides aging it needs to be taken into account the by-products of crosslinking that will tend also to diffuse out with time. The main effect of aging is an increase in the concentration of 1640 cm(-1) band (C=C bonds). For the water treed regions dry and wet samples were compared. In the wet ones the absorbance is larger for the 3380 cm(-1) exhibiting, as expected, water absorption in the water treed regions (hydrophilic characteristics were increased).

Mateo, J., M. C. Lanca, and J. Marat-Mendes. "Infrared spectroscopy studies of aged polymeric insulators." Advanced Materials Forum I. Ed. T. Vieira. Vol. 230-2. Key Engineering Materials, 230-2. 2002. 384-387. Abstract

Thin films of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) were aged under an AC electric field while kept in sodium chloride aqueous solution. After aging the samples showed water trees (localized damaged with the appearance of hydrophilic ramified structures whose size ranges from a few microns to I mm). Some of the samples suffered dielectric breakdown showing small channels (1-2 mm. diameter) crossing the film and sometimes also signs of carbonization. In order to identify the oxidation mechanisms contributing to aging, FTIR was used to analyze both unaged and aged specimens. Comparing between unaged and aged LDPE an increase in the FTIR spectrum for bands at 1720 cm(-1), 1640 cm(-1) and 1590 cm(-1) was visible for the aged samples. The first region corresponds to carbonyl groups (C=O bonds) resulting from oxidation (most probably ketones). While the second one is related to carbon double bonds formed due to chain scission. Finally the third one is due to carboxylates. For the XLPE the analysis is more difficult. Besides aging it needs to be taken into account the by-products of crosslinking that will tend also to diffuse out with time. The main effect of aging is an increase in the concentration of 1640 cm(-1) band (C=C bonds). For the water treed regions dry and wet samples were compared. In the wet ones the absorbance is larger for the 3380 cm(-1) exhibiting, as expected, water absorption in the water treed regions (hydrophilic characteristics were increased).