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2012
Amaro, Pedro, Sophie Schlesser, Mauro Guerra, Eric-Olivier Le Bigot, Jean-Michel Isac, Pascal Travers, Jose Paulo Santos, Csilla Szabo, Alexandre Gumberidze, and Paul Indelicato. "Absolute Measurement of the Relativistic Magnetic Dipole Transition Energy in Heliumlike Argon." Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 (2012): 043005. AbstractWebsite

The 1s2s 3S1 ! 1s2 1S0 relativistic magnetic dipole transition in heliumlike argon, emitted by the plasma of an electron-cyclotron resonance ion source, has been measured using a double-flat crystal x-ray spectrometer. Such a spectrometer, used for the first time on a highly charged ion transition, provides absolute (reference-free) measurements in the x-ray domain. We find a transition energy of 3104.1605(77) eV (2.5 ppm accuracy). This value is the most accurate, reference-free measurement done for such a transition and is in good agreement with recent QED predictions.

Amaro, Pedro, Sophie Schlesser, Mauro Guerra, Eric-Olivier Le Bigot, Jean-Michel Isac, Pascal Travers, Jose Paulo Santos, Csilla Szabo, Alexandre Gumberidze, and Paul Indelicato. "Absolute Measurement of the Relativistic Magnetic Dipole Transition Energy in Heliumlike Argon." Physical Review Letters 109 (2012): 043005. AbstractWebsite

The 1s2s 3S1 - 1s2 1S0 relativistic magnetic dipole transition in heliumlike argon, emitted by the plasma of an electron-cyclotron resonance ion source, has been measured using a double-flat crystal x-ray spectrometer. Such a spectrometer, used for the first time on a highly charged ion transition, provides absolute (reference-free) measurements in the x-ray domain. We find a transition energy of 3104.1605(77) eV (2.5 ppm accuracy). This value is the most accurate, reference-free measurement done for such a transition and is in good agreement with recent QED predictions.

Guerra, M., F. Parente, P. Indelicato, and J. P. Santos. "Modified binary encounter Bethe model for electron-impact ionization." International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 313 (2012): 1. AbstractWebsite

Theoretical expressions for ionization cross sections by electron impact based on the binary encounter Bethe (BEB) model, valid from ionization threshold up to relativistic energies, are proposed.The new modified BEB (MBEB) and its relativistic counterpart (MRBEB) expressions are simpler than the BEB (nonrelativistic and relativistic) expressions because they require only one atomic parameter, namely the binding energy of the electrons to be ionized, and use only one scaling term for the ionization of all sub-shells.The new models are used to calculate the K-, L- and M-shell ionization cross sections by electron impact for several atoms with Z from 6 to 83. Comparisons with all, to the best of our knowledge, available experimental data show that this model is as good or better than other models, with less complexity.

Safari, L., P. Amaro, S. Fritzsche, J. P. Santos, and F. Fratini. "Relativistic total cross section and angular distribution for Rayleigh scattering by atomic hydrogen." Phys. Rev. A 85 (2012): 043406. AbstractWebsite

We study the total cross section and angular distribution in Rayleigh scattering by hydrogen atom in the ground state, within the framework of Dirac relativistic equation and second-order perturbation theory. The relativistic states used for the calculations are obtained by making use of the finite basis-set method and expressed in terms of B splines and B polynomials. We pay particular attention to the effects that arise from higher (nondipole) terms in the expansion of the electron-photon interaction. It is shown that the angular distribution of scattered photons, while symmetric with respect to the scattering angle θ=90∘ within the electric dipole approximation, becomes asymmetric when higher multipoles are taken into account. The analytical expression of the angular distribution is parametrized in terms of Legendre polynomials. Detailed calculations are performed for photons in the energy range 0.5 to 10 keV. When possible, results are compared with previous calculations.

Marques, J., F. Parente, A. Costa, M. Martins, P. Indelicato, and J. P. Santos. "Decay of the 1s^{2}2s3p ^{3}P_{0} level in Be-like ions." Phys. Rev. A 86 (2012): 052521. AbstractWebsite

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Santos, J. P., A. M. Costa, M. C. Martins, P. Indelicato, and F. Parente. "K X-Ray Energies and Transition Probabilities for He-, Li- and Be-like Praseodymium ions." J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 388 (2012): 152018. AbstractWebsite

Theoretical transition energies and probabilities for He-, Li and Be-like Praseodymium ions are calcu- lated in the framework of the multi-configuration Dirac-Fock method (MCDF), including QED corrections. These calculated values are compared to recent experimental data obtained in the Livermore SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap facility [1].

Santos, J. P., A. M. Costa, M. C. Martins, P. Indelicato, and F. Parente. "K X-Ray Energies and Transition Probabilities for He-, Li- and Be-like Praseodymium ions." Journal of Physics: Conference Series 388 (2012): 152018. AbstractWebsite

Theoretical transition energies and probabilities for He-, Li and Be-like Praseodymium ions are calcu- lated in the framework of the multi-configuration Dirac-Fock method (MCDF), including QED corrections. These calculated values are compared to recent experimental data obtained in the Livermore SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap facility [1].

Santos, J. P., M. Guerra, and F. Parente. "New expression for the K-shell ionization." J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 388 (2012): 042047. AbstractWebsite

A new expression for the total K-shell ionization cross section by electron impact based on the rela- tivistic extension of the binary encounter Bethe (RBEB) model, valid from ionization threshold up to relativistic energies, is proposed. The new MRBEB expression is used to calculate the K-shell ionization cross sections by electron impact for the selenium atom. Comparison with all, to our knowledge, available experimental data shows good agreement.

Santos, J. P., M. Guerra, and F. Parente. "New expression for the K-shell ionization." Journal of Physics: Conference Series 388 (2012): 042047. AbstractWebsite

A new expression for the total K-shell ionization cross section by electron impact based on the rela- tivistic extension of the binary encounter Bethe (RBEB) model, valid from ionization threshold up to relativistic energies, is proposed. The new MRBEB expression is used to calculate the K-shell ionization cross sections by electron impact for the selenium atom. Comparison with all, to our knowledge, available experimental data shows good agreement.

Guimarães, Diana, Maria Luisa Carvalho, Vera Geraldes, Isabel Rocha, Luís Cerqueira Alves, and Jose Paulo Santos. "Lead in liver and kidney of exposed rats: Aging accumulation study." J. Trace Elem. Med Biol. 26 (2012): 285. AbstractWebsite

The concentration of lead in liver and kidneys of Wistar rats, fed with lead since fetal period in relation to their age and to a control group, was determined. A group of rats was exposed to lead acetate (n=30) in drinking water and the other group was exposed to normal water (n=20). Samples were collected from rats aging between 1 and 11 months and were analyzed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) without any chemical preparation. The EDXRF results were assessed by the PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) technique. The formaldehyde used to preserve the samples was also analyzed by ETAAS (Electro-Thermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry) in order to verify if there was any loss of lead from the samples to the formaldehyde. We found that the loss was not significant (<2%). Concerning the mean values of the lead concentration measured in the contaminated soft tissues, in liver they range from 6 to 22μgg(-1), and in kidneys from 44 to 79μgg(-1). The control rats show, in general, values below the EDXRF detection limit (2μgg(-1)). The ratio kidney/liver ranges from 2 to 10 and is strongly positively correlated with the age of the animals. A Spearman correlation matrix to investigate the correlation between elemental concentrations and the dependence of these concentrations with age showed that there is a strong positive correlation with age for lead in the liver but not in the kidney. The correlation matrix showed also that the concentration of lead in these two soft tissues is not correlated. The lead accumulation in liver is made by different plateaus that strongly decrease with age. It was verified the existence of two levels of accumulation in kidney, not very highlighted, which might be indicative of a maximum accumulation level for lead in kidney.

Guimarães, Diana, Maria Luisa Carvalho, Vera Geraldes, Isabel Rocha, Luís Cerqueira Alves, and Jose Paulo Santos. "Lead in liver and kidney of exposed rats: Aging accumulation study." Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 26 (2012): 285. AbstractWebsite

The concentration of lead in liver and kidneys of Wistar rats, fed with lead since fetal period in relation to their age and to a control group, was determined. A group of rats was exposed to lead acetate (n=30) in drinking water and the other group was exposed to normal water (n=20). Samples were collected from rats aging between 1 and 11 months and were analyzed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) without any chemical preparation. The EDXRF results were assessed by the PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) technique. The formaldehyde used to preserve the samples was also analyzed by ETAAS (Electro-Thermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry) in order to verify if there was any loss of lead from the samples to the formaldehyde. We found that the loss was not significant (<2%). Concerning the mean values of the lead concentration measured in the contaminated soft tissues, in liver they range from 6 to 22μgg(-1), and in kidneys from 44 to 79μgg(-1). The control rats show, in general, values below the EDXRF detection limit (2μgg(-1)). The ratio kidney/liver ranges from 2 to 10 and is strongly positively correlated with the age of the animals. A Spearman correlation matrix to investigate the correlation between elemental concentrations and the dependence of these concentrations with age showed that there is a strong positive correlation with age for lead in the liver but not in the kidney. The correlation matrix showed also that the concentration of lead in these two soft tissues is not correlated. The lead accumulation in liver is made by different plateaus that strongly decrease with age. It was verified the existence of two levels of accumulation in kidney, not very highlighted, which might be indicative of a maximum accumulation level for lead in kidney.

Amaro, P., F. Fratini, S. Fritzsche, P. Indelicato, J. P. Santos, and A. Surzhykov. "Parametrization of the angular correlation and degree of linear polarization in two-photon decays of hydrogenlike ions." Phys. Rev. A 86 (2012): 042509. AbstractWebsite

The spontaneous two-photon emission in hydrogenlike ions is investigated within the framework of second- order perturbation theory and Dirac’s equation. Special attention is paid to the angular correlation of the emitted photons as well as to the degree of linear polarization of one of the two photons, if the second is just observed under arbitrary angles. Expressions for the angular correlation and the degree of linear polarization are expanded in powers of cosine functions of the two-photon opening angle, whose coefficients depend on the atomic number and the energy sharing of the emitted photons. The effects of including higher (electric and magnetic) multipoles upon the emitted photon pairs beyond the electric-dipole approximation are also discussed. Calculations of the coefficients are performed for the transitions 2s1/2 → 1s1/2, 3d3/2 → 1s1/2, and 3d5/2 → 1s1/2, along the entire hydrogen isoelectronic sequence (1

Amaro, P., F. Fratini, S. Fritzsche, P. Indelicato, J. P. Santos, and A. Surzhykov. "Parametrization of the angular correlation and degree of linear polarization in two-photon decays of hydrogenlike ions." Physical Review A 86 (2012): 042509. AbstractWebsite

The spontaneous two-photon emission in hydrogenlike ions is investigated within the framework of second- order perturbation theory and Dirac’s equation. Special attention is paid to the angular correlation of the emitted photons as well as to the degree of linear polarization of one of the two photons, if the second is just observed under arbitrary angles. Expressions for the angular correlation and the degree of linear polarization are expanded in powers of cosine functions of the two-photon opening angle, whose coefficients depend on the atomic number and the energy sharing of the emitted photons. The effects of including higher (electric and magnetic) multipoles upon the emitted photon pairs beyond the electric-dipole approximation are also discussed. Calculations of the coefficients are performed for the transitions 2s1/2 → 1s1/2, 3d3/2 → 1s1/2, and 3d5/2 → 1s1/2, along the entire hydrogen isoelectronic sequence (1 Z 100).

Safari, L., P. Amaro, S. Fritzsche, J. P. Santos, S. Tashenov, and F. Fratini. "Relativistic polarization analysis of Rayleigh scattering by atomic hydrogen." Phys. Rev. A 86 (2012): 043405. AbstractWebsite

A relativistic analysis of the polarization properties of light elastically scattered by atomic hydrogen is performed, based on the Dirac equation and second-order perturbation theory. The relativistic atomic states used for the calculations are obtained by making use of the finite basis set method and are expressed in terms of B splines and B polynomials. We introduce two experimental scenarios in which the light is circularly and linearly polarized, respectively. For each of these scenarios, the polarization-dependent angular distribution and the degrees of circular and linear polarization of the scattered light are investigated as a function of scattering angle and photon energy. Analytical expressions are derived for the polarization-dependent angular distribution which can be used for scattering by both hydrogenic as well as many-electron systems. Detailed computations are performed for Rayleigh scattering by atomic hydrogen within the incident photon energy range 0.5 to 5 keV. Particular attention is paid to the effects that arise from higher (nondipole) terms in the expansion of the electron-photon interaction.

Safari, L., P. Amaro, S. Fritzsche, J. P. Santos, S. Tashenov, and F. Fratini. "Relativistic polarization analysis of Rayleigh scattering by atomic hydrogen." Physical Review A 86 (2012): 043405. AbstractWebsite

A relativistic analysis of the polarization properties of light elastically scattered by atomic hydrogen is performed, based on the Dirac equation and second-order perturbation theory. The relativistic atomic states used for the calculations are obtained by making use of the finite basis set method and are expressed in terms of B splines and B polynomials. We introduce two experimental scenarios in which the light is circularly and linearly polarized, respectively. For each of these scenarios, the polarization-dependent angular distribution and the degrees of circular and linear polarization of the scattered light are investigated as a function of scattering angle and photon energy. Analytical expressions are derived for the polarization-dependent angular distribution which can be used for scattering by both hydrogenic as well as many-electron systems. Detailed computations are performed for Rayleigh scattering by atomic hydrogen within the incident photon energy range 0.5 to 5 keV. Particular attention is paid to the effects that arise from higher (nondipole) terms in the expansion of the electron-photon interaction.

Amaro, P., and Csilla I. Szabo. A vacuum double-crystal spectrometer for reference-free highly charged ions X-ray spectroscopy. Submitted to Radiation Physics and Chemistry, Radiat. Phys. Chem. ed., 2012. Abstract
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2013
Kasthurirangan, S., J. K. Saha, A. N. Agnihotri, S. Bhattacharyya, D. Misra, A. Kumar, P. K. Mukherjee, J. P. Santos, A. M. Costa, P. Indelicato, T. K. Mukherjee, and L. C. Tribedi. "Observation of 2p3 d (1Po)→ 1s3d (1De) Radiative Transition in He-like Si, S, and Cl Ions." Physical Review Letters 111 (2013): 243201. AbstractWebsite
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Kasthurirangan, S., J. K. Saha, A. N. Agnihotri, S. Bhattacharyya, D. Misra, A. Kumar, P. K. Mukherjee, J. P. Santos, A. M. Costa, P. Indelicato, T. K. Mukherjee, and L. C. Tribedi. "Observation of 2p3 d (1Po)→ 1s3d (1De) Radiative Transition in He-like Si, S, and Cl Ions." Physical Review Letters 111 (2013): 243201. AbstractWebsite
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Szabo, Csilla I., Pedro Amaro, Mauro Guerra, Sophie Schlesser, Alexander Gumberidze, Jose Paulo Santos, and Paul Indelicato. "Reference free, high-precision measurements of transition energies in few electron argon ions." AIP APPLICATION OF ACCELERATORS IN RESEARCH AND INDUSTRY: Twenty-Second International Conference 1525 (2013): 68-72. AbstractWebsite

The use of a vacuum double crystal spectrometer, coupled to an electron-cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS), allows to measure low-energy x-ray transitions energies in highly-charged ions with accuracies of the order of a few parts per million. We have used this installation to measure the 1s2p 1 P1 - 1s2 1 S0 diagram line and the 1s2s 3 S1 - 1s2 1 S0 forbidden M1 transition energies in helium-like argon, the 1s2s2p 2 P j 1s2 2s 2 S1/2 transitions in lithium-like argon and the 1s2s2 2p 1 P1 - 1s2 2s2 1 S0 transition in beryllium-like argon. These transition measurements have accuracies between 2 and 4 ppm depending on the line intensity. Thanks to the excellent agreement between the simulations and the measurements, we were also able to measure the transition width of all the allowed transitions. The results are compared to recent QED and relativistic many-body calculations.

Szabo, Csilla I., Pedro Amaro, Mauro Guerra, Sophie Schlesser, Alexander Gumberidze, Jose Paulo Santos, and Paul Indelicato. "Reference free, high-precision measurements of transition energies in few electron argon ions." AIP Conf. Proc. 1525 (2013): 68-72. AbstractWebsite

The use of a vacuum double crystal spectrometer, coupled to an electron-cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS), allows to measure low-energy x-ray transitions energies in highly-charged ions with accuracies of the order of a few parts per million. We have used this installation to measure the 1s2p 1 P1 - 1s2 1 S0 diagram line and the 1s2s 3 S1 - 1s2 1 S0 forbidden M1 transition energies in helium-like argon, the 1s2s2p 2 P j 1s2 2s 2 S1/2 transitions in lithium-like argon and the 1s2s2 2p 1 P1 - 1s2 2s2 1 S0 transition in beryllium-like argon. These transition measurements have accuracies between 2 and 4 ppm depending on the line intensity. Thanks to the excellent agreement between the simulations and the measurements, we were also able to measure the transition width of all the allowed transitions. The results are compared to recent QED and relativistic many-body calculations.

Guerra, M., P. Amaro, C. I. Szabo, A. Gumberidze, P. Indelicato, and J. P. Santos. "Analysis of the charge state distribution in an ECRIS Ar plasma using high-resolution x-ray spectra." Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics 46 (2013): 065701. AbstractWebsite

In this work, we obtained a charge state distribution inside an Ar plasma produced by an electron–cyclotron-resonance ion source. The processes that lead to the observed lines in x-ray spectra are identified and included in the simulated x-ray spectrum. The geometrical constraints of the flat double crystal spectrometer, used to measure the x-ray spectrum, are investigated as they are crucial for correctly obtaining the ion densities from the observed transition amplitudes. Multiple electron impact ionization is included, and a realistic electron velocity distribution is taken into account. The charge state distribution of the Ar ions is compared to measured extracted ionic currents.

Guerra, M., R. M. Pinto, J. P. Santos, and A. C. S. Paiva. "Towards the assignment of the REMPI spectrum of Ph 2O using CIS and TD-DFT methods." Molecular Physics 111 (2013): 3311-3319. AbstractWebsite
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Guerra, M., F. Parente, and J. P. Santos. "Electron impact ionization cross sections of several ionization stages of Kr, Ar and Fe." International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 348 (2013): 1-8. AbstractWebsite

International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 348 (2013) 1-8. doi:10.1016/j.ijms.2013.02.011

Guerra, M., F. Parente, and J. P. Santos. "Electron impact ionization cross sections of several ionization stages of Kr, Ar and Fe." International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 348 (2013): 1-8. AbstractWebsite

International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 348 (2013) 1-8. doi:10.1016/j.ijms.2013.02.011

Guerra, M., P. Amaro, C. I. Szabo, A. Gumberidze, P. Indelicato, and J. P. Santos. "Analysis of the charge state distribution in an ECRIS Ar plasma using high-resolution x-ray spectra." Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics 46 (2013): 065701. AbstractWebsite

In this work, we obtained a charge state distribution inside an Ar plasma produced by an electron–cyclotron-resonance ion source. The processes that lead to the observed lines in x-ray spectra are identified and included in the simulated x-ray spectrum. The geometrical constraints of the flat double crystal spectrometer, used to measure the x-ray spectrum, are investigated as they are crucial for correctly obtaining the ion densities from the observed transition amplitudes. Multiple electron impact ionization is included, and a realistic electron velocity distribution is taken into account. The charge state distribution of the Ar ions is compared to measured extracted ionic currents.