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Xavier, J., A. M. R. Sousa, J. J. L. Morais, V. M. J. Filipe, and M. Vaz. "Measuring displacement fields by cross-correlation and a differential technique: experimental validation." Optical Engineering. 51 (2012): 043602. Abstract
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Xavier, J., M. Oliveira, P. Monteiro, J. J. L. Morais, and M. F. S. F. Moura. "Direct Evaluation of Cohesive Law in Mode I of Pinus pinaster by Digital Image Correlation." Experimental Mechanics. 54 (2014): 829-840. AbstractWebsite
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Xavier, J., J. R. A. Fernandes, O. Frazão, and J. J. L. Morais. "Measuring mode I cohesive law of wood bonded joints based on digital image correlation and fibre Bragg grating sensors." Composite Structures. 121 (2015): 83-89. Abstract

Abstract This work addresses the experimental identification of mode I cohesive law of wood bonded joints. The approach combines the double cantilever beam (DCB) test with both digital image correlation (DIC) and embedded fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. The spectrum geometric mean of the \{FBG\} reflected spectral response was determined, and the wavelength evolution was used to define the fracture process zone (FPZ) development phase. This evaluation allowed a consistent selection of experimental range of over which the identification procedure of mode I cohesive law is build up. Mode I crack length, Resistance-curve and cohesive law parameters are characterised and discussed. The strain energy release rate (GI) is determined from the P�d curve by the compliance-based beam method (CBBM). The crack tip opening displacement (wI) is determined by post-processing displacements measured by DIC. The cohesive law in mode I (sI�wI) is then obtained by numerical differentiation of the GI�wI relationship.

Xavier, J., and F. Pierron. "Measuring orthotropic bending stiffness components of Pinus pinaster by the virtual fields method." The Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design. 53 (2018): 556-565. AbstractWebsite

Orthotropic stiffness components of Pinus pinaster Ait. wood are simultaneously determined by means of a heterogeneous plate bending test. The proposed inverse identification approach couples full-field slope measurements provided by deflectometry with the virtual fields methods. Wooden plates oriented in the longitudinal–radial and longitudinal–tangential material planes were manufactured. A procedure was implemented to allow suitable specular reflective coating of the wooden plates, required in the deflectometry technique. Reconstructed curvature fields, applied load and plate dimensions were input in virtual fields methods for material parameter identification, assuming Kirchhoff–Love classical plate theory. Several virtual fields and load cases were analysed to address the identifiability of the method. The values of the orthotropic elastic constants obtained from the proposed approach were found in good agreement with regard to reference ones for the same species and determined from classical tensile, compression and shear mechanical tests.

Xavier, J., A. Majano-Majano, and J. Fernandez-Cabo. "On the identifiability of stiffness components of clear wood from a 3D off-axes prismatic specimen: angle orientation and friction effects." European Journal of Wood and Wood Products. 74 (2016): 285-290. AbstractWebsite

The robustness of the test method based on a single 3D off-axis prismatic specimen for the simultaneous identification of the orthotropic stiffness components of clear wood is addressed. In this method, the specimen is consecutively submitted to uniaxial compression tests along its three orthogonal axes. A data reduction based on anisotropic elasticity is applied to extract active material parameters from 3D full-field deformation measurements provided by stereo-correlation over adjacent faces. Two major limitations of this test method, directly affecting the parameter identification, are analysed and discussed: (1) off-axes angle orientation; (2) friction effects. A numerical study pointed out that radial and tangential rotations of about 29° and 9°, respectively, balances out the strain components in the specimen response. Moreover, friction can be reduced by using mass lubricant or soft material in the contact interface, realising transverse shear deformation.

Xavier, J., S. Avril, F. Pierron, and J. Morais. "Variation of transverse and shear stiffness properties of wood in a tree." Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. 40 (2009): 1953-1960. Abstract
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Xavier, J., A. M. P. de Jesus, J. J. L. Morais, and J. M. T. Pinto. "Stereovision measurements on evaluating the modulus of elasticity of wood by compression tests parallel to the grain." Construction and Building Materials. 26 (2012): 207-215. Abstract
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Xavier, J., J. C. R. Pereira, and A. M. P. de Jesus. "Characterisation of steel components under monotonic loading by means of image-based methods." Optics and Lasers in Engineering. 53 (2014): 142-151. AbstractWebsite
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Xavier, J., M. Oliveira, J. J. L. Morais, and M. F. S. F. de Moura. "Determining mode İI\} cohesive law of Pinus pinaster by combining the end-notched flexure test with digital image correlation." Construction and Building Materials. 71 (2014): 109-115. Abstract

Abstract This work addresses the direct identification of cohesive law of Pinus pinaster in mode II. The end-notched flexure (ENF) test is selected for mode İI\} loading. The strain energy release rate in mode İI\} (GII) is determined according to the compliance-based beam method (CBBM) by processing the global load�displacement curve, without requirements to monitor the crack length during test. The fracture test is coupled with digital image correlation (DIC) for the local measurement of the crack tip opening displacement in mode İI\} (wII). Using a direct method, the cohesive law in mode İI\} (sII�wII) is determined by differentiating the GII�wII relationship. The procedure is validated from both numerical, using finite element analyses including cohesive zone modelling, and experimental approaches. The methodology and accuracy on this reconstruction is discussed. It is concluded that the proposed data reduction scheme is suitable for assessing the cohesive law of P. pinaster in mode II.

Xavier, J., J. Morais, and F. Pereira. "Non-linear shear behaviour of bovine cortical bone by coupling the Arcan test with digital image correlation." Optics and Lasers in Engineering. 110 (2018): 462-470. AbstractWebsite

The non-linear shear behaviour of bovine cortical bone is measured by coupling the Arcan test with digital image correlation. The experimental study is carried out on specimens taken from bovine femur and oriented along the longitudinal-tangential material plane. An ad hoc Arcan fixture is built to transfer the cross-head displacement of the testing machine into a shear loading at the centre of the V-notched section. A validation of predominant shear behaviour at the gauge section is shown from full-field deformation measurements. Moreover, direct evaluation of the shear modulus is obtained by integrating the shear strain component along the V-notches, avoiding numerical correction factors required in the classical data reduction scheme. The shear modulus of bovine cortical bone is found in good agreement with references from literature. Moreover, the shear stress at maximum load is understood as a suitable estimation of the shear strength. Furthermore, the Ramberg�Osgood model is found to provide an accurate description of the non-linear shear behaviour of bone tissue.

Xavier, J., S. Avril, F. Pierron, and J. Morais. "Novel experimental approach for longitudinal-radial stiffness characterisation of clear wood by a single test." Holzforschung. 61 (2007): 573-581. Abstract
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Xavier, J., J. Morais, N. Dourado, and M. F. S. F. de Moura. "Measurement of mode I and mode II fracture properties of wood-bonded joints." Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology. 25 (2011): 2881-2895. Abstract
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Xavier, J., U. Belini, F. Pierron, J. Morais, J. Lousada, and M. Tomazello. "Characterisation of the bending stiffness components of MDF panels from full-field slope measurements." Wood Science and Technology. 47 (2013): 423-441. Abstract
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Xavier, J., P. Monteiro, J. J. L. Morais, N. Dourado, and M. F. S. F. de Moura. "Moisture content effect on the fracture characterisation of Pinus pinaster under mode I." Journal of Materials Science. 49 (2014): 7371-7381. AbstractWebsite
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Xavier, J., M. Oliveira, J. J. L. Morais, and M. F. S. F. de Moura. "Determining mode I cohesive law of Pinus pinaster by coupling double cantilever beam test with digital image correlation." Fracture and Structural Integrity. 31 (2015): 13-22. AbstractWebsite

The direct identification of the cohesive law in pure mode I of Pinus pinaster is addressed. The approach couples the double cantilever beam (DCB) test with digital image correlation (DIC). Wooden beam specimens loaded in the radial-longitudinal (RL) fracture propagation system are used. The strain energy release rate in mode I (GI ) is uniquely determined from the load-displacement ( P ?? ) curve by means of the compliance-based beam method (CBBM). This method relies on the concept of equivalent elastic crack length ( eq a ) and therefore does not require the monitoring of crack propagation during test. The crack tip opening displacement in mode I ? ? I w is determined from the displacement field at the initial crack tip. The cohesive law in mode I I I (? ? w ) is then identified by numerical differentiation of the I I G ? w relationship. Moreover, the proposed procedure is validated by finite element analyses including cohesive zone modelling. It is concluded that the proposed data reduction scheme is adequate for assessing the cohesive law in pure mode I of P. pinaster.

Xavier, J. C., N. M. Garrido, M. Oliveira, J. L. Morais, P. P. Camanho, and F. Pierron. "A comparison between the Iosipescu and off-axis shear test methods for the characterization of ıt Pinus pinaster Ait." Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. 35 (2004): 827-840. Abstract

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Xavier, J., J. R. A. Fernandes, J. J. L. Morais, and O. Frazão. "Fracture behaviour of wood bonded joints under modes I and II by digital image correlation and fibre Bragg grating sensors." Ciência & Tecnologia dos Materiais. 27 (2015): 27-35. AbstractWebsite

Abstract Direct identification of cohesive laws in modes I and İI\} of wood bonded joints is addressed by the double cantilever beam (DCB) and end-notched flexure (ENF) tests, respectively. Moreover, the development and extension of fracture process zone (FPZ) ahead of the initial crack tip, is analysed by means of digital image correlation (DIC) and embedded fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. From \{FBG\} spectral response, the spectrum geometric mean is determined and the strain induced by wavelength variation employed to identify the initial and final stages of the FPZ. These stages are used to consistently define the cohesive laws in both modes I and II. Resistance-curves are determined from the compliance-based beam method (CBBM). Besides, the crack tip opening displacements (CTOD) are determined by post-processing displacement field provided by \{DIC\} around the initial crack tip. The strain energy release rate as a function of the \{CTOD\} are then determined for both mode I and mode II. The respective cohesive laws are reconstructed by numerical approximation and differentiation. It is concluded that the proposed data reduction scheme is effective to determine both the \{FPZ\} development phase and the corresponding cohesive laws of wood bonded joints in both mode I and mode II.

Xavier, J., M. Oliveira, J. Morais, and J. Pinto. "Measurement of the shear properties of clear wood by the Arcan test." Holzforschung. 63 (2009): 217-225. Abstract
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