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Rocha, H. The impact of technologies on the teacher's use of different representations. Proceedings of 12th International Conference onTechnology in Mathematics Teaching. Faro: Universidade do Algarve, 2015. Abstract

This study intends to characterize how the teacher uses and integrates the different representations provided by the graphing calculator on the process of teaching and learning functions at the secondary level. Specifically, it intends to understand the balance established between the use of the different representations, and the way these representations are articulated. The conclusions reached point to an active use of the graphic and algebraic representations and to a scarce use of the tabular representation. The conclusions also point to a flexible articulation between the two representations usual used, assuming different forms and frequently an interactive approach, repeatedly switching between representations.

Rocha, H. The impact of technology on the teachers’ use of different representations. CERME. Utrecht, Holanda: ERME, 2019. Abstract

The potential of using different representations is widely recognized, but not much is known about how teachers use them nor about the impact of the technology on such use. The goal of this study is to characterize the teachers’ representational fluency when teaching functions at high school level, discussing, at the same time, the impact in the use of representations resulting from the use of technology. Adopting a qualitative approach, I analyze one teacher’s practice. The results suggest that algebraic and graphical representations are seen as more important, that tabular representation is assumed as irrelevant and that the access to technology impacts the learning, the representations used and how they are used.

Rocha, H. The impact of the cultural context on the professional practice of the teacher. Proceedings of 8th Annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation. Seville, Spain: ICERI, 2015. Abstract

THE IMPACT OF THE CULTURAL CONTEXT ON THE PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE OF THE TEACHER

H. Rocha

Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia (PORTUGAL)

The professional knowledge is a key element of the teacher’s practice. This knowledge is naturally influenced by the teacher’s beliefs and conceptions and by his training, but the context where he develops his practice is perhaps the most decisive influence. At this level, the school where the teacher works and his colleagues are a powerful influence, but the characteristics of his students are even a stronger influence. The cultural diversity of the students and specifically the linguistic diversity are highly relevant elements. A classroom where different languages converge is always a complex context which requires a deeper professional knowledge with inevitable repercussions over the teacher’s practice.

This study focuses on a teacher working with a mathematics’ class of foreign students with heavy linguistic limitations on the language of instruction and it intends to analyze the impact of this context on the teacher’s practice. In particular, it intends to analyze how this context interferes with the characteristics of the tasks proposed by the teacher and with the way how mathematical concepts are presented to the students.

The study adopts a qualitative and interpretative methodological approach, undertaking one teacher case study. Data were collected during one school year by semi-structured interviews, class observation, and documental data gathering. All interviews and classes observed were audio taped and transcribed. Data analysis was conducted in an interpretative way.

The conclusions reached point to an increase on the appreciation of mechanization, to a large reduction in the use of problematic situations and to a presentation of Mathematics as calculation, disconnected from any application, and where reasoning appears as a marginal element or is even missing. The use of several examples becomes a key element of the practice of this teacher. The main finding of this study suggests that language limitations caused a strong impact on the practice of a teacher who considers the understanding and the development of reasoning from the discussion around mathematical ideas as central to the teaching of this subject. It was also possible to identify that the need to find a way to communicate reinforced the formalism of the mathematical language, placing it in the center of the learning process.

Keywords: cultural context, teacher’s practice, mathematics.

Rocha, H. The influence of teacher’s knowledge for teaching mathematics with technology on the implementation of investigation tasks. Proceedings of 8th International Technology, Education and Development Conference. Valencia, Spain: INTED, 2014.
Coelho, T., and H. Rocha A interdisciplinaridade em contexto de integração da tecnologia: o conhecimento profissional de professores de Matemática e de Físico-Química. Atas do Encontro de Investigação em Educação Matemática., In Press.
Rocha, H. Interdisciplinary tasks: pre-service teachers’ choice and approach. ATEE Winter Conference - Science and mathematics education in the 21st century. Brussels: ATEE and CIEd, 2019. Abstract

This study focusses on the criteria used by pre-service teachers of Mathematics to choose interdisciplinary tasks. The pre-service teachers’ knowledge is assumed as the basis of the actions taken and used as the origin of the choices and approaches observed. The study adopts a qualitative and interpretative methodology and the data were collected using class observation and interviews. The analysis is guided by the Application and Pedagogical Content Knowledge, a model inspired on TPACK (from Mishra and Koehler) and MKT (from Ball and colleagues). The conclusions point to an appreciation of the mathematical part of the tasks and to a devaluation of the remaining components. This suggests difficulty in articulating and integrating different domains of knowledge and points to a fragmented view of the potential of using mathematical applications.

Rocha, H. Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics with Technology - a new framework of teacher knowledge. Proceedings of the 37th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Kiel, Germany: PME, 2013. Abstract

Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics with Technology (KTMT) is a theoretical model that seeks to articulate previously existing models on professional knowledge and the conclusions that the investigation around the integration of technology has achieved. KTMT is a dynamic knowledge, informed by the practice, that develops from the knowledge on the base domains (Mathematics, Teaching and Learning, Technology and Curriculum), evolving as knowledge in the base domains interacts and as this promotes the development of inter-domain knowledge, which continue to interact, strengthening relations and leading to the development of an integrated knowledge, where knowledge on the base domains and on the two sets of inter-domains appears deeply integrated into a global knowledge.

Rocha, H. Knowledge for teaching mathematics with technology and the search for a suitable viewing window to represent functions. Proceedings of Cerme 9. Prague, Czech Republic: ERME, 2015. Abstract

The usual difficulties of students regarding the choice of an appropriate window when using the graphing calculator in the study of functions and the importance of the teachers’ knowledge to overcoming them, led to this study. The main goal was to characterize the way teachers address the viewing window in the classroom, trying to infer aspects of the Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics with Technology that can justify that practice. The conclusions reached point to the importance of a set of specific knowledge where I highlight the knowledge of the students’ difficulties, the knowledge of mathematical content necessary to understand the impact of the viewing window on the graphic, and the knowledge of teaching strategies that address both the students’ difficulties and the relevant mathematical knowledge.

Rocha, H. Mathematics teaching in Education and Training Courses. Proceedings of the International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies. Barcelona, Spain: EduLearn, 2014. Abstract

MATHEMATICS TEACHING IN EDUCATION AND TRAINING COURSES
H. Rocha

Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia (PORTUGAL)

Education and Training Courses have been specifically designed to the high number of young people in a situation of school dropout and in transition to working life, particularly those who enter the labor market early with insufficient levels of schooling and professional training. Mathematics is one of the curriculum components of these courses, for its contribution to the exercise of citizenship in a democratic society. Being an important part of the cultural legacy of our society is too often seen by students as a source of exclusion. It is known that young people who enter these courses often had an experience of underachievement in the discipline, what justifies that motivating students is at once the great challenge faced by the teacher. The program suggests taking a more concrete and linked to reality approach, allowing students to learn to recognize the mathematics in the world around them and using technology to promote that learning. However, it is the teacher who is responsible for managing its implementation, shaping the learning situations and integrating them in a coherent and articulated way in the specific course that students attend. In what concerns to assessment, the program also takes into account the usual characteristics of the students. Thus, the assessment includes a strong appreciation of students’ work, its presentation and discussion and further improvement of that work. The directions given to the teacher diverge from the traditional option of the evaluation test, providing guidelines to the form that each evaluation can take depending on the contents in study. However, once again, the teacher's role in curriculum management is not neglected, being valued the adequacy of proposals to the characteristics of the students.
The study presented here had as its main goal to analyze and understand the choices made by the teacher during the different stages of his practice, giving attention to the dilemmas he faced and to the reasons he took into account when making decisions.

The study adopts a qualitative and interpretative methodological approach, undertaking one teacher case study. Data collection included semi-structured interviews, classroom observation and document collection. Data analysis was based on the evidence gathered in the light of the problem under study.

The conclusions of the study point to the important role of technology and suggest that the reduction of prerequisites, the intention of taking into account the students’ interests and the desire of improving students culture is central in what concerns to task selection; while the active involvement of students characterized the implementation of the classes. The dilemmas faced by the teacher focus mainly on the relative importance and on the demanding level that he should give to each content, as well as the articulation that he should promote between formal and intuitive knowledge. In what concerns to assessment, the results achieved highlight the impact that students ideas can have on teacher’s practice, conducting to the inclusion of tests as an assessment element, against the teacher’s intentions.

keywords: education and training courses, mathematics, innovation, technology.

Rocha, H. Múltiplas abordagens, múltiplas representações: um contributo para incrementar a relevância da representação algébrica [Multiple approaches, multiple representations: a contribute to increase the relevance of algebraic representation]. Atas do Encontro de Investigação em Educação Matemática. Bragança, Portugal: SPIEM, 2015. Abstract

A tecnologia e o impacto que esta pode ter sobre as diferentes representações utilizadas e, em particular, sobre a representação algébrica são o foco deste artigo. Procura-se assim compreender como é que o professor enquadra a representação algébrica no trabalho em sala de aula e como a procura tornar relevante para os alunos num contexto de utilização da tecnologia. As conclusões alcançadas apontam para a opção por uma estreita articulação entre as representações algébrica e gráfica e para uma criteriosa escolha de tarefas, envolvendo múltiplas abordagens, onde a representação algébrica vem disponibilizar informação fundamental e tendencialmente inacessível a partir de outras representações.

Viseu, F., P. Mendes, and H. Rocha The notion of function by basic education preservice teachers. ATEE Winter Conference ‘Science and mathematics education in the 21st century. Brussels: ATEE and CIEd, 2019. Abstract

The current curricular guidelines for mathematics education in Portugal emphasize the relevance of working with different representations of functions to promote understanding. Given this relevance, we seek understanding about the notion of function held by 37 basic education pre-service teachers in their first year of a master’s course. Data were collected through a task focusing on identifying functions in situations based on different representations. The content analysis technique was then adopted in the search for an understanding of the justifications given by the participants. The results achieved suggest it is easier for the pre-service teachers to identify examples that are not functions than examples that are functions. There is also a tendency for greater accuracy in the identification of examples expressed by tables than by algebraic expressions. The justifications presented show a notion of function as a relation between values of two non-empty sets, but without guaranteeing that this relation is single-valued.

Botelho, M. C., and H. Rocha O conhecimento do professor de matemática e a integração das tecnologias na sua prática. Atas do Encontro de Investigação em Educação Matemática., In Press.
Botelho, M. C., and H. Rocha O conhecimento profissional do professor de matemática na integração de diferentes tecnologias. Atas do XXXII Seminário de Investigação em Educação Matemática., In Press.
Coelho, T., and H. Rocha O conhecimento profissional do professor e a interdisciplinaridade em contexto de integração com a tecnologia. XXXII Seminário de Investigação em Educação Matemática., In Press.
Rocha, H., M. C. Costa, and H. Jacinto O desenvolvimento curricular e a formação de professores. Atas do Encontro de Investigação em Educação Matemática., In Press.
Rocha, H., and F. Viseu O ensino de Funções no 3.º ciclo e no ensino secundário: que diferenças? [Teaching Functions at lower and upper secondary: what is different?]. EIEM. Coimbra: SPIEM, 2018. Abstract

Neste estudo analisamos as perceções que professores do 3.º ciclo e do ensino secundário têm da sua prática no âmbito do ensino de Funções, com o objetivo de as caracterizar e de identificar as diferenças existentes entre estes dois grupos de professores. Um aspeto particularmente relevante se tivermos em conta que se tratam de dois grupos de professores com formações iniciais idênticas. Adotamos uma metodologia mista, com uma vertente quantitativa apoiada na aplicação de questionários e uma vertente qualitativa baseada na realização de entrevistas. As principais conclusões alcançadas apontam para semelhanças nas perceções dos professores, mas também para algumas diferenças em função do ciclo de ensino. Na planificação das aulas os manuais são amplamente utilizados, mas de forma diferente consoante o ciclo de ensino do professor. Os professores de ambos os ciclos de ensino estabelecem conexões entre diferentes representações, mas valorizam de diferentes formas as representações disponíveis. O envolvimento dos alunos nas atividades da aula é outro aspeto destacado pelos professores, mas uma vez mais existem diferenças. Na avaliação o recurso ao teste é enfatizado pelos dois grupos de professores, mas já existem diferenças quanto à importância atribuída ao trabalho de grupo.

Rocha, H. O formal da matemática e o intuitivo da tecnologia: que articulação?. Atas do ProfMat 2015. Évora, Portugal: APM, 2015. Abstractpaper.pdf

A tecnologia é cada vez mais indispensável no dia-a-dia, rodeando-nos constantemente. Para os nossos alunos é uma realidade que conhecem desde sempre e que tendem a encarar com uma naturalidade descontraída e intuitiva. A facilidade de acesso à tecnologia e o modo como esta tende a enfatizar o intuitivo e a relegar para segundo plano o formal e a demonstração matemática são o foco deste artigo. Partindo da análise de uma proposta de trabalho onde alunos de 10.º ano começam por uma abordagem intuitiva apoiada na calculadora gráfica e terminam a realizar uma demonstração da conjectura que formularam, procuro discutir a problemática. As conclusões alcançadas sugerem que é possível colocar aos alunos situações onde estes se podem aperceber da vantagem de recorrer tanto a abordagens mais formais como a abordagens mais intuitivas e isto mesmo quando a tecnologia é uma realidade em sala de aula. Sugere ainda que a realização de demonstrações pode, entre outros aspectos já identificados na literatura, dar um contributo importante para a compreensão de aspectos basilares da Matemática.

Rocha, H. O formalismo matemático num contexto de utilização da tecnologia [Mathematical proof in a context of technology integration]. Atas do XXVI SIEM. Évora: APM, 2015. Abstract

The technology and how it tends to emphasize the intuitive and overshadow calculus and mathematical proof are the focus of this paper. The conclusions reached suggest that tasks where students might realize the usefulness of calculus as well as of more intuitive approaches are possible even when the technology is a reality in the classroom. They also suggest that proof may, among other things already identified in the literature, make an important contribution to the students’ understanding of fundamental aspects of mathematics.

A tecnologia e a forma como esta tende a enfatizar o intuitivo e a relegar para segundo plano o formal e a demonstração matemática são o foco deste artigo. As conclusões alcançadas sugerem que é possível colocar aos alunos situações onde estes se possam aperceber da vantagem de recorrer tanto a abordagens mais formais como a abordagens mais intuitivas e isto mesmo quando a tecnologia é uma realidade em sala de aula. Sugere ainda que a realização de demonstrações pode, entre outros aspectos já identificados na literatura, dar um contributo importante para a compreensão de aspectos basilares da Matemática.

Lopes, S., and H. Rocha O jogo como promotor da comunicação e aprendizagem matemática [Games to promote communication and mathematical learning]. XXVII SIEM. Porto, Portugal: APM, 2016. Abstract

Games are commonly appointed as a methodological tool capable of promoting students’ effective learning. In this context, this study intends to analyze the impact of mathematical discussions developed while
playing a polynomial game. Namely it intends to analyze the impact on the consolidation of mathematical concepts previously worked in the classroom and on the communications skills. Two case studies where developed involving 10th grade students. Data gathering was based on direct observation and an inquiry. The main conclusions suggest that the game encouraged the discussion about the mathematical contents and therefore promoted the development of the mathematical discourse. Besides that, it allowed a deeper apprehension of mathematical concepts, and the overcome of some difficulties.

Rocha, H., and P. Teixeira O professor e a aula de Matemática [The teacher and the Mathematics class]. EIEM. Coimbra: SPIEM, 2018. Abstract

A formação e o desenvolvimento profissional do professor são determinantes para as opções que este assume na sala de aula. É o seu conhecimento, aquilo que valoriza e o contexto onde se encontra inserido que determinam as experiências de aprendizagem que proporciona aos seus alunos. Mas esse conhecimento profissional envolve uma multiplicidade de dimensões que decorrem da sua formação inicial e contínua, mas também das experiências que teve ocasião de vivenciar e de processos de socialização, onde a interação com os pares e as oportunidades de desenvolver trabalho colaborativo são elementos importantes. A aula de matemática surge assim como o campo aglutinador do trabalho do professor numa dupla vertente que se une num ciclo único: por um lado a aula de Matemática é o foco do trabalho do professor, onde as opções previamente assumidas são implementadas; e, por outro lado, é um ponto de partida para a reflexão e o desenvolvimento profissional do professor.

Da planificação da aula, onde a escolha das tarefas e a forma de as implementar são aspetos centrais e onde a vertente histórica não deixará de estar presente; à sua implementação, operacionalizando diferentes recursos (nomeadamente os tecnológicos) e assumindo dinâmicas de aula diferenciadas; até à fase de reflexão entre pares, que termina e reinicia um novo ciclo – estas são as grandes etapas em torno das quais este texto se organiza e onde a formação inicial e contínua não deixarão de estar presentes.

Rocha, H. O professor e a fidelidade matemática da calculadora gráfica no estudo de Funções [The teacher and the mathematical fidelity of the graphing calculator in the study of Functions]. XXVIII SIEM. Viseu, Portugal: APM, 2017. Abstract

The teacher's knowledge of the mathematical fidelity of technology and the impact it has on the teacher’s practice is the focus of this article. Based on the conceptualization of Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics with Technology (KTMT), and involving the teaching of Functions at the 10th grade, we analyze: the situations of lack of mathematical fidelity considered by the teacher in the classes, the way how the teacher manages students' contact with this kind of situations, and how the teacher supports students when they are faced with a lack of mathematical fidelity. The conclusions reached point to: some devaluation of the situations of lack of mathematical fidelity, with only one type of situation being explicitly addressed; a careful selection of tasks, in order to ensure that these situations do not occur too soon; a focus on the identification by the students of this type of situation, suggesting what they can do to confirm the suspicion but without effective implementation of the process. As a consequence, knowledge of mathematical fidelity does not necessarily have a relevant impact on teacher’s practice and it is not easily transformed into a deep teacher’s KTMT.

Coelho, E., and H. Rocha O raciocínio dedutivo de alunos do 10.º ano de escolaridade [The deductive reasoning of students in the 10th grade]. XXVII SIEM. Porto, Portugal: APM, 2016. Abstract

Deductive reasoning, being central in mathematics, is also usually a source of difficulties for students, more used to the empirical approaches. In this study we focus on mathematical proof and we try to give attention to how this kind of reasoning is envisaged by the students, to the options they assume when asked to develop a deductive reasoning and to the factors affecting the implementation of this kind of reasoning. The study follows a qualitative and interpretative methodological approach, including the completion of two case studies of students of the 10th grade. Data were collected in work sessions and through interviews. The main findings point to a devaluation of mathematical proof and a strong preference for empirical approaches. Yet students show ability to develop different approaches. The preference for the mathematical subject and the attention given in class to the deduction work, appears to be relevant factors when considering the students' ability to develop a deductive reasoning when involved on a mathematical proof.

Rocha, H. O recurso a diferentes representações no ensino das funções com o apoio da tecnologia. Actas do XXIII SIEM – Seminário de Investigação em Educação Matemática. Coimbra, Portugal: APM, 2012.
Caneco, R., and H. Rocha O uso de exemplos na demonstração: um estudo com alunos do 11.º ano. SIEM. Castelo Branco, Portugal: APM, 2019. Abstract

This article focuses the choice and use of examples by two students of the 11th grade to prove or refute a set of statements. The use of representations of sequences and functions is also considered. The study adopts a qualitative approach and data were collected by interviews and documental gathering. The conclusions suggest most of the examples used were well-known sequences or functions. However, the students sought different purposes for the use of examples, such as understanding the conjecture, demonstrate the falsity or truthfulness of the statement and conveying a general argument. The students made a satisfactory articulation between the various types of representations but relied mostly in the cartesian graph.