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Biscaia, H. C., N. Franco, and C. Chastre. "Development of a simple bond-slip model for joints monitored with the DIC technique." Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering. 18 (2018): 1535-1546. AbstractWebsite

The monitoring of structures has undergone important advances with the improvements of digital cameras available on the market. Thus, the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique has become a viable way of studying engineering problems. Recently it has been used in the debonding failure process between the reinforcement and the substrate. The methods or methodologies that should be followed to obtain the results associated to the debonding phenomenon using the DIC technique need to be better understood and studies on this topic are scarce. The present work therefore proposes a new and inexpensive method to monitor the interfacial behaviour between a reinforcement material and a substrate by combining the use of the DIC technique and a simplified nonlinear bond-slip model. For the validation of the proposed method, a series of single-lap shear tests with a sufficient long bond length carried out by the authors are used. Based on the slip distribution obtained from the DIC technique, it was found that a third-degree polynomial function can be used to approximate the interfacial bond-slip curve of the joint. The validation of the model is made with several analytical solutions using the proposed bond-slip model. © 2018 Politechnika Wrocławska

Franco, N., H. Biscaia, and C. Chastre. "Experimental and numerical analyses of flexurally-strengthened concrete T-beams with stainless steel." Engineering Structures. 172 (2018): 981-996. AbstractWebsite

This work presents the results and the main conclusions of a series of experimental tests carried out to evaluate the efficiency of post-installed stainless steel reinforcement on the flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) T-beams when the bonding techniques EBR (Externally Bonded Reinforcement), NSM (Near Surface Mounted) and MA-EBR (EBR with Mechanical Anchors) are used. The RC T-beams were also modelled using a commercial Finite Element (FE) software in order to predict their behaviour until the rupture. For this purpose, a set of single-lap shear tests were also carried out to evaluate the local bond-slip relationships developed within the Stainless Steel (SS)-to-concrete interface. Due to the experimental bond-slip relationships, the numerical simulations were able to predict, with good accuracy, the different behaviours of the RC T-beams until their rupture. Moreover, the different rupture modes observed on all the RC T-beams herein tested were very well estimated by the numerical analyses. The tests of the RC T-beams showed that all the strengthening techniques allowed their flexural stiffness to be increased. Nevertheless, the RC T–beams strengthened with the EBR and NSM techniques had premature ruptures, i.e. the rupture in the RC T-beams occurred even before the yielding of their steel reinforcements. The RC T-beam strengthened with the MA-EBR technique showed good ductility and the highest load bearing capacity, which means that the MA-EBR technique is the best bonding technique herein used. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

Biscaia, H., N. Franco, and C. Chastre. "Stainless Steel Bonded to Concrete: An Experimental Assessment using the DIC Technique." International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials. 12 (2018). AbstractWebsite

The durability performance of stainless steel makes it an interesting alternative for the structural strengthening of reinforced concrete. Like external steel plates or fibre reinforced polymers, stainless steel can be applied using externally bonded reinforcement (EBR) or the near surface mounted (NSM) bonding techniques. In the present work, a set of single-lap shear tests were carried out using the EBR and NSM bonding techniques. The evaluation of the performance of the bonding interfaces was done with the help of the digital image correlation (DIC) technique. The tests showed that the measurements gathered with DIC should be used with caution, since there is noise in the distribution of the slips and only the slips greater than one-tenth of a millimetre were fairly well predicted. For this reason, the slips had to be smoothed out to make it easier to determine the strains in the stainless steel and the bond stress transfer between materials, which helps to determine the bond–slip relationship of the interface. Moreover, the DIC technique allowed to identify all the states developed within the interface through the load–slip responses which were also closely predicted with other monitoring devices. Considering the NSM and the EBR samples with the same bonded lengths, it can be stated that the NSM system has the best performance due to their higher strength, being observed the rupture of the stainless steel in the samples with bond lengths of 200 and 300 mm. Associated with this higher strength, the NSM specimens had an effective bond length of 168 mm which is 71.5% of that obtained for the EBR specimens (235 mm). A trapezoidal and a power functions are the proposed shapes to describe the interfacial bond–slip relationships of the NSM and EBR systems, respectively, where the maximum bond stress in the former system is 1.8 times the maximum bond stress of the latter one. © 2018, The Author(s).

Biscaia, H. C., and C. Chastre. "Theoretical analysis of fracture in double overlap bonded joints with FRP composites and thin steel plates." Engineering Fracture Mechanics. 190 (2018): 435-460. AbstractWebsite

The effective stress transfer between the fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) and the steel substrate is crucial for the successful retrofit of existing steel structures with FRP composites. However, there are no standard tests for FRP-to-steel interfaces, wherefore different test configurations have been used in recent years to assess the bond behaviour in these interfaces. The present study shows that the choice of test configuration is highly important and leads to different transfer stresses between the FRP and steel composites and consequently, has a direct influence on the strength of the bonded joint. Therefore, it is important to understand the debonding process that occurs in each test and avoid misinterpretations, erroneous analyses and dangerous characterizations of the interfacial behaviour of these interfaces. The current study presents a new analytical approach for the prediction of the debonding of FRP-to-steel interfaces when double-lap pull or double-strap tests are used. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd