Fire behaviour of CFRP-strengthened RC slabs using different techniques – EBR, NSM and CREatE

Azevedo, A. S., J. P. Firmo, J. R. Correia, C. Chastre, H. Biscaia, and N. Franco. "Fire behaviour of CFRP-strengthened RC slabs using different techniques – EBR, NSM and CREatE." Composites Part B: Engineering. 230 (2022). copy at


This paper presents an experimental study about the fire behaviour of reinforced concrete (RC) slabs strengthened with carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) strips, applied according to three different techniques: externally bonded reinforcement (EBR); near-surface mounted (NSM), and continuous reinforcement embedded at the ends (CREatE), a new technique that prevents premature CFRP debonding. The main goals of this study were three-fold: to understand and compare the fire behaviour of the strengthening techniques, namely the CREatE technique (yet to be studied); to assess the efficiency of the fire protection schemes (constant thickness vs. increased thickness at the CFRP anchorage zones) in extending the fire resistance of the CFRP systems; and, based on the experimental results and data available in the literature, to propose “critical” temperatures for the fire design of CFRP-strengthened RC members. The results obtained show that: (i) without protection, the CREatE technique presented higher fire resistance than the alternative NSM and EBR techniques (24 min vs. 16 min and 2 min); (ii) with fire protection, regardless of its geometry, the NSM and CREatE techniques presented a similar fire resistance (both above 120 min), higher than the EBR technique (less than 60 min); and (iii) the “critical” temperatures for each technique were defined as 1.0Tg, 2.5Tg and 3.0Tg for EBR, NSM and CREatE, respectively, with Tg being the glass transition temperature of the adhesive, defined based on the onset of the storage modulus curve decay from dynamic mechanical analysis. © 2021 Elsevier Ltd


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