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A
Amaral, A., P. Brogueira, O. Conde, G. Lavareda, and C. Nunes de Carvalho. "Device quality InOx:Sn and InOx thin films deposited at room temperature with different rf-power densities." THIN SOLID FILMS 526 (2012): 221-224. Abstract

The influence of tin doping on the electrical, optical, structural and morphological properties of indium oxide films produced by radio-frequency plasma enhanced reactive thermal evaporation is studied, as transport properties are expected to improve with doping. Undoped and tin doped indium oxide thin films are deposited at room temperature using both pure In rods and (95-80) % In:(5-20) % Sn alloys as evaporation sources and 19.5 mW/cm(2) and 58.6 mW/cm(2) as rf-power densities. The two most important macroscopic properties - visible transparency and electrical resistivity - are relatively independent of tin content (0-20%). Visible transmittance of about 75% and electrical resistivity around 5 x 10(-4) Omega.cm can be observed in the films. The structural features are similar for all samples. Nevertheless, the surface morphology characterization shows that the homogeneity of the films varies according to the tin content. Moreover this variation is a balance between the rf-power and the tin content in the alloy: i) films with small and compact grains are produced at 58.6 mW/cm(2) from a 5% Sn alloy or at 19.5 mW/cm(2) from a 15% Sn alloy and consequently, smooth surfaces with reduced roughness and similar grain size and shape are obtained; ii) films showing the presence of aggregates randomly distributed above a tissue formed of thinner grains and higher roughness are produced at the other deposition conditions. (C) 2012 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.

Amaral, A., P. Brogueira, G. Lavareda, and Nunes C. de Carvalho. "On the Role of Tin Doping in InOx Thin Films Deposited by Radio Frequency-Plasma Enhanced Reactive Thermal Evaporation." JOURNAL OF NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY 10 (2010): 2713-2716. Abstract

In view of the increasing need for larger-area display devices with improved image quality it becomes increasingly important to decrease resistivity while maintaining transparency in transparent conducting oxides (TCOs). Accomplishing the goal of increased conductivity and transparency will require a deeper understanding of the relationships between the structure and the electro-optical properties of these materials. In this work we study the role of tin doping in InOx thin films. Undoped indium oxide (InOx) and indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited at room temperature by radio-frequency plasma enhanced reactive thermal evaporation (rf-PERTE), a new technique recently developed in our laboratory using as evaporation source either In rods or a 90%In:10%Sn alloy, respectively. The two most important macroscopic properties-optical transparency and electrical resistivity-seem to be independent of the tin content in these deposition conditions. Results show that the films present a visible transmittance of the order of 82%, and an electrical resistivity of about 8 x 10(-4) Omega . cm. Surface morphology characterization made by atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that homogeneity of the films deposited from a 90%In:10%Sn alloy is enhanced (a film with small and compact grains is produced) and consequently a smooth surface with reduced roughness and with similar grain size and shape is obtained. Films deposited from pure In rods evaporation source show the presence of aggregates randomly distributed above a film tissue formed of thinner grains.

C
de Calheiros Velozo, A., G. Lavareda, C. Nunes de Carvalho, and A. Amaral. "Thermal dehydrogenation of amorphous silicon deposited on c-Si: Effect of the substrate temperature during deposition." In PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI C: CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, VOL 9, NO 10-11, edited by S. Pizzini, G. Kissinger, H. YamadaKaneta and J. Kang, 2198-2202. Vol. 9. Physica Status Solidi C-Current Topics in Solid State Physics 9. European Mat Res Soc (E-MRS), 2012. Abstract

Samples of doped and undoped a-Si: H were deposited at temperatures ranging from 100 degrees C to 350 degrees C and then submitted to different dehydrogenation temperatures (from 350 degrees C to 550 degrees C) and times (from 1 h to 4 h). a-Si: H films were characterised after deposition through the measurements of specific material parameters such as: the optical gap, the conductivity at 25 degrees C, the thermal activation energy of conductivity and its hydrogen content. Hydrogen content was measured after each thermal treatment. Substrate dopant contamination from phosphorus-doped a-Si thin films was evaluated by SIMS after complete dehydrogenation and a junction depth of 0.1 mu m was obtained. Dehydrogenation results show a strong dependence of the hydrogen content of the as-deposited film on the deposition temperature. Nevertheless, the dehydrogenation temperature seems to determine the final H content in a way almost independent from the initial content in the sample. H richer films dehydrogenate faster than films with lower hydrogen concentration. (C) 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

de Calheiros Velozo, A., G. Lavareda, C. Nunes de Carvalho, and A. Amaral. "Thermal dehydrogenation of amorphous silicon: A time-evolution study." THIN SOLID FILMS 543 (2013): 48-50. Abstract

A model is proposed to describe the decrease of H content in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si: H), during annealing at a fixed temperature. H content has been measured in several a-Si: H samples ( grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition) after being submitted to different annealing times at 400 degrees C. Obtained data has been fitted to the proposed model and initial diffusion coefficients of 3.2 x 10(-14) cm(2)/s for intrinsic films and 4.2 x 10(-14) cm(2)/s for n-type films were obtained. Reversely, H content evolution can be predicted during a thermal treatment if diffusion coefficients are previously known. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Carvalho, Carlos, Jose Lameiro, Nuno Paulino, and Guilherme Lavareda. "A Step-up mu-Power Converter for Solar Energy Harvesting Applications, using Hill Climbing Maximum Power Point Tracking." In 2011 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS (ISCAS), 1924-1927. IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems. IEEE, 2011. Abstract

This paper presents a step-up micro-power converter for solar energy harvesting applications. The circuit uses a SC voltage tripler architecture, controlled by an MPPT circuit based on the Hill Climbing algorithm. This circuit was designed in a 0.13 mu m CMOS technology in order to work with an a-Si PV cell. The circuit has a local power supply voltage, created using a scaled down SC voltage tripler, controlled by the same MPPT circuit, to make the circuit robust to load and illumination variations. The SC circuits use a combination of PMOS and NMOS transistors to reduce the occupied area. A charge re-use scheme is used to compensate the large parasitic capacitors associated to the MOS transistors. The simulation results show that the circuit can deliver a power of 1266 mu W to the load using 1712 mu W of power from the PV cell, corresponding to an efficiency as high as 73.91%. The simulations also show that the circuit is capable of starting up with only 19% of the maximum illumination level.

Carvalho, Carlos, Guilherme Lavareda, and Nuno Paulino. "A DC-DC Step-Up mu-Power Converter for Energy Harvesting Applications, Using Maximum Power Point Tracking, Based on Fractional Open Circuit Voltage." In TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION FOR SUSTAINABILITY, edited by LM CamarinhaMatos, 510-517. Vol. 349. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology 349. Soc Collaborat Networks; IFIP WG 5.5 COVE CoOperation Infrastructure Virtual Enterprises & Elect Business; IEEE Ind Elect Soc; U2; Uninova, 2011. Abstract

A DC-DC step-up micro power converter for solar energy harvesting applications is presented. The circuit is based on a switched-capacitor voltage tripler architecture with MOSFET capacitors, which results in an, area approximately eight times smaller than using MiM capacitors for the 0.131 mu m CMOS technology. In order to compensate for the loss of efficiency, due to the larger parasitic capacitances, a charge reutilization scheme is employed. The circuit is self-clocked, using a phase controller designed specifically to work with an amorphous silicon solar cell, in order to obtain the maximum available power from the cell. This will be done by tracking its maximum power point (MPPT) using the fractional open circuit voltage method. Electrical simulations of the circuit, together with an equivalent electrical model of an amorphous silicon solar cell, show that the circuit can deliver a power of 1132 mu W to the load, corresponding to a maximum efficiency of 66.81%.

Carvalho, Carlos, Guilherme Lavareda, Ana Amaral, Carlos Nunes de Carvalho, and Nuno Paulino. "A CMOS micro power switched-capacitor DC-DC step-up converter for indoor light energy harvesting applications." ANALOG INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND SIGNAL PROCESSING 78 (2014): 333-351. Abstract

This paper presents a micro power light energy harvesting system for indoor environments. Light energy is collected by amorphous silicon photovoltaic (a-Si:H PV) cells, processed by a switched capacitor (SC) voltage doubler circuit with maximum power point tracking (MPPT), and finally stored in a large capacitor. The MPPT fractional open circuit voltage (V-OC) technique is implemented by an asynchronous state machine (ASM) that creates and dynamically adjusts the clock frequency of the step-up SC circuit, matching the input impedance of the SC circuit to the maximum power point condition of the PV cells. The ASM has a separate local power supply to make it robust against load variations. In order to reduce the area occupied by the SC circuit, while maintaining an acceptable efficiency value, the SC circuit uses MOSFET capacitors with a charge sharing scheme for the bottom plate parasitic capacitors. The circuit occupies an area of 0.31 mm(2) in a 130 nm CMOS technology. The system was designed in order to work under realistic indoor light intensities. Experimental results show that the proposed system, using PV cells with an area of 14 cm(2), is capable of starting-up from a 0 V condition, with an irradiance of only 0.32 W/m(2). After starting-up, the system requires an irradiance of only 0.18 W/m(2) (18 mu W/cm(2)) to remain operating. The ASM circuit can operate correctly using a local power supply voltage of 453 mV, dissipating only 0.085 mu W. These values are, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the lowest reported in the literature. The maximum efficiency of the SC converter is 70.3 % for an input power of 48 mu W, which is comparable with reported values from circuits operating at similar power levels.

Costa, J., M. Fernandes, M. Vieira, G. Lavareda, and A. Karmali. "Membrane Selectivity versus Sensor Response in Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon CHEMFETs Using a Semi-Empirical Model." JOURNAL OF NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY 11 (2011): 8844-8847. Abstract

Toxic amides, such as acrylamide, are potentially harmful to Human health, so there is great interest in the fabrication of compact and economical devices to measure their concentration in food products and effluents. The CHEmically Modified Field Effect Transistor (CHEMFET) based on amorphous silicon technology is a candidate for this type of application due to its low fabrication cost. In this article we have used a semi-empirical model of the device to predict its performance in a solution of interfering ions. The actual semiconductor unit of the sensor was fabricated by the PECVD technique in the top gate configuration. The CHEMFET simulation was performed based on the experimental current voltage curves of the semiconductor unit and on an empirical model of the polymeric membrane. Results presented here are useful for selection and design of CHEMFET membranes and provide an idea of the limitations of the amorphous CHEMFET device. In addition to the economical advantage, the small size of this prototype means it is appropriate for in situ operation and integration in a sensor array.

Costa, J., M. Fernandes, M. Vieira, G. Lavareda, CN Carvalho, and A. Karmali. "Field Effect and Light-Assisted a-Si:H Sensors for Detection of Ions in Solution." SENSOR LETTERS 8 (2010): 493-496. Abstract

In this paper we present an amorphous silicon device that can be used in two operation modes to measure the concentration of ions in solution. While crystalline devices present a higher sensitivity, their amorphous counterpart present a much lower fabrication cost, thus enabling the production of cheap disposable sensors for use, for example, in the food industry. The devices were fabricated on glass substrates by the PECVD technique in the top gate configuration, where the metallic gate is replaced by an electrolytic solution with an immersed Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Silicon nitride is used as gate dielectric enhancing the sensitivity and passivation layer used to avoid leakage and electrochemical reactions. In this article we report on the semiconductor unit, showing that the device can be operated in a light-assisted mode, where changes in the pH produce changes on the measured ac photocurrent. In alternative the device can be operated as a conventional ion selective field effect device where changes in the pH induce changes in the transistor's threshold voltage.

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Dalui, S., S. Rout, A. J. Silvestre, G. Lavareda, L. C. J. Pereira, P. Brogueira, and O. Conde. "Structural, electrical and magnetic studies of Co:SnO2 and (Co,Mo):SnO2 films prepared by pulsed laser deposition." APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE 278 (2013): 127-131. Abstract

Here we report on the structural, optical, electrical and magnetic properties of Co-doped and (Co,Mo)-codoped SnO2 thin films deposited on r-cut sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Substrate temperature during deposition was kept at 500 degrees C. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the undoped and doped films are crystalline with predominant orientation along the {[}1 0 1] direction regardless of the doping concentration and doping element. Optical studies revealed that the presence of Mo reverts the blue shift trend observed for the Co-doped films. For the Co and Mo doping concentrations studied, the incorporation of Mo did not contribute to increase the conductivity of the films or to enhance the ferromagnetic order of the Co-doped films. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

F
Fernandes, M., Y. Vygranenko, M. Vieira, G. Lavareda, Nunes C. de Carvalho, and A. Amaral. "Automated rf-PERTE System for Room Temperature Deposition of TCO Coatings." Energy Procedia 102 (2016): 96-101. Abstract

In this work we present a fully automated plasma-enhanced reactive thermal evaporation system (rf-PERTE) that can be used for the deposition of transparent metal oxide films without intentional heating of the substrate. The system and developed software enables the full control over critical deposition conditions such as mass flow of oxygen, process pressure, current flowing through crucible and rf-power. These parameters are automatically adjusted during the deposition thus keeping them in a narrow process window. This way, highly transparent and conductive coating can be deposited with a high degree of reproducibility of the optical and electrical characteristics. The resistivity of 9×10-4 Ω-cm and the peak transmittance of 90% in the visible spectral range were achieved for indium oxide films deposited on glass substrates. This technique is also suitable for the deposition of transparent conducting coatings in a wide range of plastic materials for flexible solar cells. In particular, we have successfully deposited indium oxide on PEN (polyethylene naphtalate) sheets with electrical and optical properties approaching the ones for films on glass.

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Lavareda, G., P. Parreira, J. Valente, F. T. Nunes, A. Amaral, and C. Nunes de Carvalho. "Highly transparent undoped semiconducting ZnOx thin films deposited at room temperature by rf-PERTE - Influence of rf power." JOURNAL OF NON-CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS 356 (2010): 1392-1394. Abstract

Transparent, undoped semiconductive thin films of zinc oxide were deposited by radio frequency plasma enhanced reactive thermal evaporation of zinc rods in the presence of oxygen at room temperature, without any post-deposition annealing treatments. The study of the variation of rf power, in the range 5-200W, on the main properties of these films was made. A decrease of the electrical conductivity of these films with increasing rf power was observed (10(-3) to 10(-12) (Omega cm)(-1)), respectively, while the average visible transparency was kept practically constant (approximate to 80%). From this initial study, a set of bottom-gate type thin-film transistors were made using the most promising semiconductor materials. Preliminary I(V) measurements showed all transistors working, with best results obtained from zinc oxide material deposited at the lowest rf power (20 W), within the deposition conditions range which leads to semiconductive material. Such devices presented an I-on (20 V)/I-off (-5 V) ratio of 6 x 10(6) and a field-effect mobility of 0.37 cm(2)/(V s). (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Lavareda, G., C. Nunes de Carvalho, A. M. Ferraria, A. M. Botelho Do Rego, and A. Amaral. "p-Type Cuo(X) Thin Films by rf-Plasma Enhanced Reactive Thermal Evaporation: Influence of rf-Power Density." JOURNAL OF NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY 12 (2012): 6754-6757. Abstract

Copper oxide is a well known p-type semiconductor material, usually obtained by thermal oxidation of copper thin-films within few minutes, at atmospheric pressure. In this paper, thin films of copper oxide that were deposited by radio-frequency plasma enhanced reactive thermal evaporation of copper at room temperature, without any post-deposition annealing treatment, are studied. The deposition of good quality p-type semiconductor oxide to be used in the fabrication of p-TFTs is the purpose of this work. The thickness of the films varies from 97 up to 160 nm. The influence of rf power density on chemical, electrical and optical properties of the films was studied. Samples present conductivity within the range of 6 x 10(-5) to 4 x 10(2) Omega(-1) cm(-1) (thermal activation energy in the interval 0.46 to 0.01 eV). The p-type conductivity of the films was confirmed by Seebeck effect in the more conductive samples. Surface composition obtained by XPS analysis was correlated with optical and electrical properties, showing that rf-power plays a main role in changes of material characteristics.

Lavareda, G., A. de Calheiros Velozo, C. Nunes de Carvalho, and A. Amaral. "p/n junction depth control using amorphous silicon as a low temperature dopant source." THIN SOLID FILMS 543 (2013): 122-124. Abstract

Phosphorus-doped amorphous silicon thin films, deposited at low temperatures by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition were used as a dopant source on p-type c-Si substrates. A careful step of dehydrogenation was done in order to maintain the a-Si thin-film integrity. Subsequently, a fine-controlled drive-in of dopant, from the amorphous layer to the crystalline wafer was done, to form the p/n junction, using different time periods and temperatures. Dopant profiling in c-Si wafers as well as dopant concentration in a-Si: H films prior to diffusion, both measured by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, are presented. Junction depths obtained are in the range of 98 nm to 2.4 mu m and surface concentrations are in the range of 1.1 x 10(21) to 4.3 x 10(20) at/cm(3). A dual diffusion mechanism explains the ``kink-and-tail{''} shape found for dopant profile. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

M
Merino, E. G., G. Lavareda, P. Brogueira, A. Amaral, C. Nunes de Carvalho, and PL Almeida. "InOx thin films deposited by plasma assisted evaporation: Application in light shutters." VACUUM 107 (2014): 116-119. Abstract

An integration of undoped InOx and commercial ITO thin films into laboratory assembled light shutter devices is made. Accordingly, undoped transparent conductive InOx thin films, about 100 nm thick, are deposited by radiofrequency plasma enhanced reactive thermal evaporation (rf-PERTE) of indium teardrops with no intentional heating of the glass substrates. The process of deposition occurs at very low deposition rates (0.1–0.3 nm/s) to establish an optimized reaction between the oxygen plasma and the metal vapor. These films show the following main characteristics: transparency of 87% (wavelength, λ = 632.8 nm) and sheet resistance of 52 Ω/sq; while on commercial ITO films the transparency was of 92% and sheet resistance of 83 Ω/sq. The InOx thin film surface characterized by AFM shows a uniform grain texture with a root mean square surface roughness of Rq∼2.276 nm. In contrast, commercial ITO topography is characterized by two regions: one smoother with Rq∼0.973 nm and one with big grains (Rq∼3.617 nm). For the shutters assembled using commercial ITO, the light transmission coefficient (Tr) reaches the highest value (Trmax) of 89% and the lowest (Trmin) of 1.3% [13], while for the InOx shutters these values are 80.1% and 3.2%, respectively. Regarding the electric field required to achieve 90% of the maximum transmission in the ON state (Eon), the one presented by the devices assembled with commercial ITO coated glasses is 2.41 V/μm while the one presented by the devices assembled with InOx coated glasses is smaller, 1.77 V/μm. These results corroborate the device quality that depends on the base materials and fabrication process used.

N
Nunes de Carvalho, C., P. Parreira, G. Lavareda, P. Brogueira, and A. Amaral. "P-type CuxS thin films: Integration in a thin film transistor structure." THIN SOLID FILMS 543 (2013): 3-6. Abstract

CuxS thin films, 80 nm thick, are deposited by vacuum thermal evaporation of sulfur-rich powder mixture, Cu2S:S (50:50 wt.%) with no intentional heating of the substrate. The process of deposition occurs at very low deposition rates (0.1-0.3 nm/s) to avoid the formation of Cu or S-rich films. The evolution of CuxS films surface properties (morphology/roughness) under post deposition mild annealing in air at 270 degrees C and their integration in a thin film transistor (TFT) are the main objectives of this study. Accordingly, Scanning Electron Microscopy studies show CuxS films with different surface morphologies, depending on the post deposition annealing conditions. For the shortest annealing time, the CuxS films look to be constructed of grains with large dimension at the surface (approximately 100 nm) and consequently, irregular shape. For the longest annealing time, films with a fine-grained surface are found, with some randomly distributed large particles bound to this fine-grained surface. Atomic Force Microscopy results indicate an increase of the root-mean-square roughness of CuxS surface with annealing time, from 13.6 up to 37.4 nm, for 255 and 345 s, respectively. The preliminary integration of CuxS films in a TFT bottom-gate type structure allowed the study of the feasibility and compatibility of this material with the remaining stages of a TFT fabrication as well as the determination of the p-type characteristic of the CuxS material. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Parreira, P., G. Lavareda, J. Valente, F. T. Nunes, A. Amaral, and Nunes C. de Carvalho. "Undoped InOx Films Deposited by Radio Frequency Plasma Enhanced Reactive Thermal Evaporation at Room Temperature: Importance of Substrate." JOURNAL OF NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY 10 (2010): 2701-2704. Abstract

Conductive and transparent undoped thin films of indium oxide (InOx), 120 nm average thick, were deposited by radio frequency plasma enhanced reactive thermal evaporation (rf-PERTE) of indium in the presence of oxygen at room temperature. Several substrates were used in order to study their influence on the main properties of these films: alkali free (AF) glass, fused silica, crystalline silicon and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Surface morphology of the InOx films as a function of the substrates was observed by SEM and showed that the undoped InOx films obtained are nano-structured. For the c-Si substrate, InOx films with increased grain size are obtained, induced by the crystalline substrate. Films deposited on fused silica and AF glass substrates show a nano-grainy surface with similar surface morphologies. The InOx films deposited on AF glass show the highest values of both: electrical conductivity of about 1100 (Omega cm)(-1) and visible transmittance of 85%. The substrate has a greater influence on the surface morphology of the films when a polymer (PET) is used. InOx films deposited on PET show a decrease in the electrical conductivity (90 (Omega cm)(-1)) and a slight decrease in the average visible transmittance (78%).

Parreira, P., G. Lavareda, J. Valente, F. T. Nunes, A. Amaral, and C. Nunes de Carvalho. "Optoelectronic properties of transparent p-type semiconductor CuxS thin films." PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI A-APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE 207 (2010): 1652-1654. Abstract

Nowadays, among the available transparent semiconductors for device use, the great majority (if not all) have n-type conductivity. The fabrication of a transparent p-type semiconductor with good optoelectronic properties (comparable to those of n-type: InOx, ITO, ZnOx or FTO) would significantly broaden the application field of thin films. However, until now no material has yet presented all the required properties. Cu2S is a p-type narrow-band-gap material with an average optical transmittance of about 60% in the visible range for 50 nm thick films. However, due to its high conductivity at room temperature, 10 nm in thickness seems to be appropriate for device use. Cu2S thin films with 10 nm in thickness have an optical visible transmittance of about 85% rendering them as very good candidates for transparent p-type semiconductors. In this work CuxS thin films were deposited on alkali-free (AF) glass by thermal evaporation. The objective was not only the determination of its optoelectronic properties but also the feasibility of an active layer in a p-type thin film transistor. In our CuxS thin films, p-type high conductivity with a total visible transmittance of about 50% have been achieved. (C) 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

Parreira, P., G. Lavareda, A. Amaral, A. M. Botelho Do Rego, O. Conde, J. Valente, F. Nunes, and Nunes C. de Carvalho. "Transparent p-type CuxS thin films." JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS 509 (2011): 5099-5104. Abstract

The effect of different mild post-annealing treatments in air, at 270 degrees C, for 4-6 min, on the optical, electrical, structural and chemical properties of copper sulphide (CuxS) thin films deposited at room temperature are investigated. CuxS films, 70nm thick, are deposited on glass substrates by vacuum thermal evaporation from a Cu2S:S (50:50 wt.%) sulphur rich powder mixture. The as-deposited highly conductive crystalline CuS (covellite) films show high carrier concentration (similar to 10(22) cm(-3)), low electrical resistivity (similar to 10(-4) Omega cm) and inconclusive p-type conduction. After the mild post-annealing, these films display increasing values of resistivity (similar to 10(-3) to similar to 10(-2) Omega cm) with annealing time and exhibit conclusive p-type conduction. An increase of copper content in CuxS phases towards the semiconductive Cu2S (chalcocite) compound with annealing time is reported, due to re-evaporation of sulphur from the films. However, the latter stoichiometry was not obtained, which indicates the presence of vacancies in the Cu lattice. In the most resistive films a Cu2O phase is also observed, diminishing the amount of available copper to combine with sulphur, and therefore the highest values of optical transmittance are reached (65%). The appearance on the surface of amorphous sulphates with annealing time increase is also detected as a consequence of sulphur oxidation and replacement of sulphur with oxygen. All annealed films are copper deficient in regards to the stoichiometric Cu2S and exhibit stable p-type conductivity. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Parreira, P., E. Torres, C. Nunes, Nunes C. de Carvalho, G. Lavareda, A. Amaral, and M. J. Brites. "Dye-sensitized 1D anatase TiO2 nanorods for tunable efficient photodetection in the visible range." SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL 161 (2012): 901-907. Abstract

TiO2 films with enhanced photosensitivity were deposited on alkali free glass substrates without intentional substrate heating by pulsed DC magnetron reactive sputtering with an average thickness of about 2 mu m. Three dyes, commercial N719 and two new organic dyes were impregnated in order to control the optical spectral selectivity of such films. The type of dye used proved to dramatically influence the device's response to radiation pulses. The practical breakthrough is the use of different dyes according to the region of the electromagnetic spectrum one wants to detect. Devices with photocurrent 6 orders of magnitude higher than the dark current (from similar to 2 x 10(-12) to 2 x 10(-6) A for a 100 V bias) were fabricated with a spectral response within the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. In addition, this approach is likely to allow for the fabrication of hybrid photodetectors on cheap heat sensible flexible polymeric substrates. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Ribeiro, Celso, Pedro Brogueira, Guilherme Lavareda, Carlos N. Carvalho, Ana Amaral, Luis Santos, Jorge Morgado, Ulrich Scherf, and Vasco D. B. Bonifacio. "Ultrasensitive microchip sensor based on boron-containing polyfluorene nanofilms." BIOSENSORS & BIOELECTRONICS 26 (2010): 1662-1665. Abstract

A fluorene-based pi-conjugated copolymer with on-chain dibenzoborole units was used in the development of a nanocoated gold interdigitated microelectrode array device which successfully detects fluoride in a broad range of concentrations (10(-11)-10(-4) M) in aqueous solution, upon impedance spectroscopy measurements. A calibration curve obtained over this range of concentrations and a new analytical method based on impedance spectroscopy measurements in aqueous solution is proposed. The sensor nanofilm was produced by spin-coating and diagnosed via spectroscopic ellipsometry, AFM, and electrically conductivity techniques. Changes in the conductivity due to the boron-fluoride complex formation seem to be the major mechanism behind the dependence of impedimetric results on the fluoride concentration. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ricardo, L., A. Amaral, Nunes C. de Carvalho, and G. Lavareda. "Dopant transfer from poly-si thin films to c-Si: An alternative technique for device processing." Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing 42 (2016): 210-214. Abstract

An alternative technique for production of devices which uses both silicon crystalline wafers (p-type) and heavy doped amorphous silicon thin films (n-type) is reported. The amorphous silicon acts as a finite source of dopant and is deposited (at low temperature, 70 °C) by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition on silicon wafers. Afterwards, the process of dopant diffusion into the crystalline silicon occurs in a diffusion furnace at 1000 °C for 2 h, to create p–n junctions. Using SIMS analyses, a dopant (P) transfer into c-Si of about 30% is verified and 87% of the dopant transferred is electrically active. Consequently, n-MOSFET devices are produced using a gate oxide thermally grown at the same diffusion temperature for one hour. The preliminary results of the MOSFET (channel length and width of 0.5 and 5 mm, respectively) show a depletion behavior with a threshold voltage, Vth=−8.2 V and afield-effect mobility, µFE=187.8 cm2/(Vs).