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d d Ruivo, C.R.a b, Ferreira Vaz P. M. d D. "On the error of calculation of heat gains through walls by methods using constant decrement factor and time lag values." Energy and Buildings. 60 (2013): 252-261. AbstractWebsite

A transient heat transfer model was developed to numerically predict the thermal behaviour of the external walls of a room under realistic outdoor conditions. The excitation is not simply sinusoidal even though it is considered to have daily periodicity. The numerical model is based on the finite difference method and handles one-dimensional heat conduction through multilayered walls. The boundary condition at the outer surface of the wall is described with the sol-air temperature concept. The temperatures of indoor air and of other internal surfaces in the room are assumed to be equal and constant. The numerical results were used to calculate values of the decrement factor and time lag of several walls. The calculation followed two methods found in literature, in which these parameters are assumed constant, distinguished by the temperature evolution used: the sol-air or the wall's outer surface. Additionally, the inner surface temperature is used in both methods. The walls investigated range from low to high mass construction, face towards various directions and have light or dark coloured sunlit outer surfaces. The heat fluxes at the inner surface of the walls predicted by numerical modelling and estimated by the simplified methods are compared in detail to conclude on the validity of these simplified methods. As a by-product it is also possible to conclude on the dependence of the decrement factor and of the time lag on the outer surface colour and on the orientation of different types of walls. The results show that both simplified methods have poor accuracy in a significant number of cases. Also, it was found that the wall's azimuth significantly affects the time lag.© 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Vaz, D.C.a b, Van Buijtenen Borges Spliethoff J. P. a A. "On the stability range of a cylindrical combustor for operation in the flox regime." Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2004. Vol. 1. 2004. 511-516. Abstract

The implementation of flameless combustion in gas turbines is a recent research topic motivated by the potential for ultra-low NO x emissions and improvement of the combustion acoustics. This paper presents preliminary results of the implementation of flameless oxidation in a laboratory model of a cylindrical combustor (in view of stationary and micro gas turbines). Guidelines are given for the start-up of this combustion system. The experimental study then assesses, for atmospheric conditions, the combined effect of the air-to-fuel ratio, wall temperature and jet velocity on combustion stability. Global volumetric heat releases up to 16 MW/m 3, and air preheat up to 265 °C are attained. The numerical simulations give insight into the recirculating pattern of the flow and the state of mixing of reactants and products in the near-nozzle region. The turbulence-chemistry interaction is accounted for by means of the non-premixed flamelet-PDF approach (including finite rate chemistry and scalar dissipation rates up to the extinction limit).