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Compression behaviour of short columns made from cement-bonded particle board, Faria, Gonçalo, Chastre Carlos, Lúcio Válter, and Nunes Ângela , Construction and Building Materials, 3//, Volume 40, p.60-69, (2013) AbstractWebsite

Cement bonded particle board (CBPB) is a composite material produced in plates consisting mainly of wood and cement, and may contain additives. This material is currently used in cladding, raised floors, dropped ceilings, prefabricated houses, office containers and various supplies to the building industry such as kitchens, bathrooms and furniture. It is composed of a type of wood Pinus pinaster and/or Pinus pinea, Portland cement type II, sodium silicate and aluminium sulphate. CBPB has been the subject of several studies with the purpose of enabling the use of other types of wood or even vegetable biomass, as the chemical compounds from wood (extractives and sugars) tend to inhibit of cement hydration. A study on the behaviour of short CBPB elements under compression was carried out in the Department of Civil Engineering of Universidade NOVA de Lisboa with the aim of enabling its use in structural elements. The study was supported by VIROC, the company which produces CBPB in Portugal. This paper presents and analyses the most significant results of a campaign of axial compression tests performed on 111 specimens of different heights and cross sections. The behaviour of CBPB specimens of varying slenderness was subjected to a more detailed analysis.

Estudo do comportamento à compressão de compósitos de madeira e cimento, Faria, G., Lúcio V., Chastre C., and Nunes A. , Encontro Nacional Betão Estrutural 2010, Lisboa, (2010) Abstract
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Lateral cyclic behaviour of RC columns confined with carbon fibres, Faustino, Pedro, Frade Pedro, and Chastre Carlos , Structures, February 2016, Volume 5, p.196-206, (2016) AbstractWebsite

Reinforced concrete (RC) columns with various strengthening systems and different conditions were tested to cyclic lateral and axial loading for the purpose of performance assessment. Tests included confinement strengthening with carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets, longitudinal strengthening with CFRP laminates and confining CFRP jacket, longitudinal strengthening with stainless steel bars and confining CFRP jacket, tested column until reinforcing steel failure, repair and CFRP confining jacket, and longitudinal strengthening with stainless steel bars. The analysis of the tests results as to load-displacement relationship and energy dissipation led to the conclusion that the use of external longitudinal strengthening with CFRP confinement is effective for performance retrofitting and upgrading, and viable in terms of execution. The load capacity increase due to strengthening reached 36–46% with good ductile behaviour. Nonlinear numerical modelling was carried out using two approaches which represent reasonably well the global performance of the studied columns for the prediction of the ascending load-displacement relationship and the peak load values in each cycle.

Damage Effect on Concrete Columns Confined with Carbon Composites, Faustino, Pedro, and Chastre Carlos , ACI Structural Journal, Volume 113, Number 4, (2016) AbstractWebsite

Five experimental cyclic tests were carried out on reinforced concrete rectangular columns with rounded corners, different condition (new and damaged) and different strengthening systems: that included confinement through carbon fiber (CFRP) jackets, anchor dowels, high strength repair mortar and external longitudinal stainless steel bars. Lateral load - displacement relationship, energy dissipation, ductility and curvature results were analyzed together with two different damage assessment classifications. The overall evaluation concludes that the use of external confinement with CFRP on RC columns is viable and of effective performance enhancement alone and combined with other techniques. Damaged columns that were retrofitted showed an increased load capacity up to 20% along with good ductile behavior within the limits of the US, European, Canadian and Japanese codes, with minor/moderate degree of damage at 1% drift ratio and moderate degree of damage at 2% drift ratio.

Design model for square RC columns under compression confined with CFRP, Faustino, Pedro, Chastre Carlos, and Paula Raquel , Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 57, Issue February, p.187-198, (2014) Abstractfaustino_chastre_et_al._2014.pdfWebsite

The enhancement of the mechanical behaviour of reinforced concrete (RC) columns with regard to axial compression is an up-to-date concern, namely if the strengthening of existing structures is to be considered. In view of this, external confinement with FRP systems has been tested in order to become a feasible technique, since it seems to have important advantages over other systems such as its high strength and stiffness in relation to weight and its improvement of strength and ductility while confining RC columns. Square columns confined with FRP show a more complex interpretation of their behaviour, when compared to circular columns. Accordingly, the present work includes the analysis of two experimental programs regarding axial compression on CFRP confined RC columns: one on circular and square specimens with different corner radii; the other on square specimens with side lengths ranging from medium to large. Based on this, modelling equations are proposed to predict maximum axial load, axial strain and lateral strain, as well as the entire behaviour until failure with curves of axial load-axial strain and axial load-lateral strain. The modelling results show that the analytical curves are in general agreement with the presented experimental curves for a wide range of dimensions.

Flexural strengthening of columns with CFRP composites and stainless steel: Cyclic behavior, Faustino, Pedro, and Chastre Carlos , Journal of Structural Engineering, 21 September 201, Volume 142, Number 2, p.04015136, (2016) AbstractWebsite

This study presents the testing, completion, and analysis of different external strengthening systems applied to rectangular reinforced concrete columns with rounded corners. The experimental study included confinement strengthening with carbon-fiberreinforcedpolymer (CFRP) sheets, longitudinal strengthening with CFRP laminates and confining CFRP jacket, longitudinal strengtheningwith stainless steel bars and confining CFRP jacket, tested column until reinforcing steel failure, repair and CFRP confining jacket,and longitudinal strengthening with stainless steel bars. The analysis of the experimental results included lateral load-displacement relationship, energy dissipation, ductility, and curvature damage assessment classifications. It was concluded that the use of externallongitudinal strengthening combined with CFRP confinement is effective for enhancing performance and is viable in terms of execution. The load capacity increase due to strengthening reached 36–46% with good ductile behavior (failure was reached at 4.4% drift ratio). Despite some differences between CFRP laminates and stainless steel, all columns presented moderate degrees of damage between 1 and 2% drift ratio and minor damage degree until 1% drift ratio.

Lifetime modelling of chloride induced corrosion in reinforced concrete structures with concrete with portland and blended cements, Faustino, Pedro, Chastre Carlos, Nunes Ângela, and Brás Ana , Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 2016, Volume 12, Number 9, p.1013-1023, (2016) AbstractWebsite

This article discusses mathematical modelling of the long-term performance of concrete with different supplementary cementitious materials in a maritime environment. The research was carried out in the light of the national Portuguese application of the CEN standards with mandatory requirements for a performance-based design approach. Laboratory investigations were performed on concrete compositions based on CEM I and CEM II/B-L in which the cement was partially replaced by either 0% (reference composition) or 50% of low calcium fly ash (FA). Concrete compositions were made with the objective to achieve service lives of 50 and 100 years with regard to steel corrosion. Test results of compressive strength, chloride potential diffusion and electrical resistivity are reported for different curing ages of 28, 90, 180 and 365 days. Chloride diffusion results were used for the implementation of modelling equations in order to estimate the design lifetime regarding reinforcing steel corrosion. A performance-based approach using a probabilistic method was carried out and the results obtained are compared with the requirements according to the Portuguese prescriptive approach. The modelling results show that FA blended compositions have better performance compared to those with Portland cements, especially if curing ages beyond 28 days are considered.

Analysis of load–strain models for RC square columns confined with CFRP, Faustino, Pedro, and Chastre Carlos , Composites Part B: Engineering, June 2015, Volume 74, p.23-41, (2015) AbstractWebsite

This article presents the comparison between 6 theoretical models of axially confined concrete columns with the experimental results of 7 tested columns of different authors. This study analysed the accuracy of 6 different confinement models for square columns taking into account the results of experimental tests on 7 RC columns confined with CFRP sheets with different dimensions and carried out by different authors. The profile of curves, the peak/failure values, the stress–strain and axial–to–lateral relations were studied to conclude which models show the best correlation with the experimental test results. Quantification of this deviation was carried out for key parameters. Some models predicted peak values with reasonable accuracy – Manfredi & Realfonzo, Campione & Miraglia, Lam & Teng, Pellegrino & Modena – although for the whole load–strain behaviour only the model of Faustino, Chastre & Paula seemed to be reasonably accurate in most cases.

Novo sistema de reforço à flexão de vigas de betão armado com armaduras de aço inoxidável aplicadas pelo exterior, Franco, Noel, Chastre Carlos, and Biscaia Hugo , II Encontro Luso-Brasileiro de Degradação de Estruturas de Betão, 27-29 September, LNEC, Lisbon, Portugal, p.12p., (2016) Abstractdegrada_2016_-_noel_franco_-_ext-abstract.pdf

O reforço à flexão de vigas de betão armado tem apresentado uma evolução com tendência para soluções onde são utilizadas armaduras à base de materiais compósitos de fibras de Carbono, Vidro, Basalto ou Aramida, aplicadas com as técnicas Externally Bonded Reinforcement (EBR) ou Near Surface Mounted (NSM). No entanto, o comportamento elástico-linear destes materiais e as roturas tendencialmente frágeis das soluções condicionam a sua utilização em estruturas onde se pretende alguma ductilidade. Por conseguinte, procurou-se desenvolver um sistema de reforço estrutural alternativo e inovador em que os materiais de reforço aplicados, conjuntamente com a solução de reforço, conseguissem minimizar ou eliminar os riscos de roturas prematuras e ao mesmo tempo aumentassem a ductilidade dos elementos reforçados. Neste trabalho, apresenta-se em pormenor este novo sistema de reforço à flexão de vigas de betão armado com armaduras de aço inoxidável ancoradas internamente por aderência. Neste sistema de reforço as armaduras são contínuas e pós-instaladas pelo exterior, ficando as extremidades ancoradas por aderência no interior do elemento estrutural. Apresentam-se e discutem-se os resultados dos ensaios realizados para avaliar o desempenho das vigas de betão armado reforçadas com esta nova técnica. Os modos de rotura observados são também motivo de análise mais detalhada. Evidenciam-se alguns benefícios na utilização deste sistema de reforço inovador, nomeadamente ao nível da capacidade resistente última das vigas de betão armado e fazem-se algumas recomendações para a sua aplicação e utilização na reabilitação de elementos estruturais degradados.

Análise do desempenho à flexão de vigas de betão armado reforçadas com armaduras de aço inoxidável, Franco, N., Chastre C., and Biscaia H. C. , JPEE2014 – 5ª Jornadas Portuguesas de Engenharia de Estruturas, Encontro Nacional Betão Estrutural 2014., LNEC, Lisboa., (2014) Abstractartigo_jpee_2014_franco_chastre_biscaia.pdf

Apresentam-se neste artigo os resultados dos ensaios realizados à escala real de um conjunto de vigas de betão armado com secção em T, levados a cabo para avaliar o desempenho das armaduras de aço inoxidável no reforço à flexão de vigas de betão armado com armaduras pós-instaladas aplicadas com as técnicas de reforço EBR (Externally Bonded Reinforcement), NSM (Near Surface Mounted) e EBR com ancoragens metálicas nas extremidades. Os ensaios realizados demonstraram que as técnicas de reforço utilizadas permitem aumentar a rigidez à flexão em regime elástico. Porém, a viga reforçada através da técnica EBR teve uma rotura prematura antes de atingir o valor da carga de cedência da viga não reforçada. Já as vigas reforçadas com as técnicas NSM e EBR com ancoragens mecânicas superaram o valor da carga de cedência da viga de referência, e as ancoragens mecânicas proporcionaram bastante ductilidade à viga reforçada com esta técnica.

Análise do desempenho da técnica CREatE para reforço à flexão de vigas de betão armado com armaduras de aço inoxidável, Franco, Noel, Chastre Carlos, and Biscaia Hugo , Encontro Nacional Betão Estrutural 2016, 2-4 November 201, FCTUC, Coimbra, Portugal, p.10, (2016) Abstractbe_2016_paper_74_noel__franco.pdf

Neste artigo apresentam-se as principais características da técnica de reforço Continuous Reinforcement Embedded at Ends (CREatE), os procedimentos de aplicação e as vantagens e limitações da sua utilização. Apresentam-se também os resultados dos ensaios realizados para avaliar o desempenho desta técnica no reforço à flexão de vigas de betão armado com secção transversal em T, reforçadas com armaduras pós-instaladas de aço inoxidável, coladas pelo exterior ou inseridas na zona de recobrimento. As vigas reforçadas com a técnica CREatE e ensaiadas à flexão em quatro prontos apresentaram elevados acréscimos de resistência e ductilidade quando comparadas com as vigas reforçadas com as técnicas tradicionais - Externally-Bonded Reinforcement (EBR) e Near Surface Mounted (NSM). As vigas reforçadas com a técnica CREatE foram sujeitas a carregamentos monotónicos ou cíclicos, tendo-se constatado que as roturas prematuras que estão associadas às técnicas tradicionais anteriormente referidas nunca foram observadas nas vigas reforças com esta técnica. Desenvolveu-se um modelo numérico simples, e com boa precisão, para modelar o desempenho das vigas de betão armado, sendo os resultados apresentados e discutidos.

Análise experimental do comportamento à flexão de vigas de betão armado reforçadas com armaduras pós-instaladas de aço inoxidável, Franco, Noel, Chastre Carlos, and Biscaia Hugo , TEST&E 2016 - 1º Congresso de Ensaios e Experimentação em Engenharia Civil, 4-6 July 2016, IST, Lisbon, Portugal, p.8, (2016) Abstractteste2016_-_01067_-_noel.pdf

A procura de soluções de reforço mais eficientes que permitam aumentar a capacidade resistente de elementos estruturais sujeitos a flexão levou ao desenvolvimento de um sistema inovador de aplicação de armaduras de reforço coladas pelo exterior. Neste artigo descrevem-se os ensaios experimentais realizados e analisam-se os resultados obtidos com vigas de betão armado reforçadas com armaduras pós-instaladas de aço inoxidável com diferentes técnicas: Externally Bonded Reinforcement (EBR), Near Surface Mounted (NSM) e com o novo sistema de reforço desenvolvido - Continuous Reinforcement Embedded at Ends (CREatE). As vigas ensaiadas monotonicamente até à rotura em flexão de quatro pontos têm seção transversal em T e um vão livre de três metros. No novo sistema de reforço as armaduras são ancoradas por aderência no interior do elemento estrutural, o que associado à utilização de armaduras em aço inoxidável, possibilita aumentos de resistência e ductilidade consideráveis face às técnicas tradicionais de colagem pelo exterior.