{Natural deep eutectic solvents from choline chloride and betaine – Physicochemical properties}

Aroso IM, Paiva A, Reis RL, Duarte AR. {Natural deep eutectic solvents from choline chloride and betaine – Physicochemical properties}. Journal of Molecular Liquids. 2017;241. copy at https://docentes.fct.unl.pt/ard08968/publications/natural-deep-eutectic-solvents-choline-chloride-and-betaine-physicochemical-pr


© 2017 Elsevier B.V. The preparation of natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) from cheap and readily available raw materials is reported. In this work, we have considered mixtures of choline chloride (CC) or betaine (Bet) with 3 sugar molecules (glucose (Glu), xylose (Xyl) and sucrose (Suc)) and 2 carboxylic acids (citric (CA) and tartaric (Tart) acids). The formation of NADESs was investigated by polarized optical microscopy (POM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The CC mixtures give origin to NADESs for 1:1 M ratio with the sugar molecules and for 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2 with the carboxylic acids, while Bet mixtures only formed NADES with the carboxylic acids. The effect of water content (up to 5{%} (wt.{%})) and temperature in conductivity and rheology were characterized. The NADESs were found to be non-thixotropic, Newtonian liquids with high viscosity, decreasing with increasing temperature and water content. The conductivity is limited by charge carrier mobility, thus increasing with water content and temperature.