A three-dimensional (3D) numerical implementation of the limit analysis upper-bound theorem is used to determine passive horizontal earth-pressure coefficients. An extension technique allowing determination of the 3D passive earth pressures for any width-to-height ratios greater than 7 is presented. The horizontal passive earth-pressure coefficients are presented and compared with solutions published previously. Results of the ratio between the 3D and two-dimensional horizontal passive earth-pressure coefficients are shown and found to be almost independent of the soil-to-wall friction ratio. A simple equation is proposed for calculating this passive earth-pressure ratio.

%Z n/a