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and Ao Liu, Guoxia Liu, Huihui Zhu Byoungchul Shin Elvira Fortunato Rodrigo Martins Fukai Shan. "Eco-friendly, solution-processed In-W-O thin films and their applications in low-voltage, high-performance transistors." Journal of Materials Chemistry C. 4 (2016): 4478-4484. AbstractWebsite

In this study, amorphous indium-tungsten oxide (IWO) semiconductor thin films were prepared by an eco-friendly spin-coating process using ethanol and water as solvents. The electrical properties of IWO thin-film transistors (TFTs), together with the structural and morphological characteristics of IWO thin films, were systematically investigated as functions of tungsten concentration and annealing temperature. The optimized IWO channel layer was then integrated on an aqueous aluminum oxide (AlOx) gate dielectric. It is observed that the solution-processed IWO/AlOx TFT presents high stability and improved characteristics, such as an on/off current ratio of 5 × 107, a field-effect mobility of 15.3 cm2 V-1 s-1, a small subthreshold slope of 68 mV dec-1, and a threshold voltage shift of 0.15 V under bias stress for 2 h. The IWO/AlOx TFT could be operated at a low voltage of 2 V, which was 15 times lower than that of conventional SiO2-based devices. The solution-processed IWO thin films synthesized in a green route would be promising candidates for large-area and high-performance low-cost devices. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

and Ao Liu, Guoxia Liu, Huihui Zhu Byoungchul Shin Elvira Fortunato Rodrigo Martins Fukai Shan. "High-mobility p-type NiOx thin-film transistors processed at low temperatures with Al2O3 high-k dielectric." Journal of Materials Chemistry C. 4 (2016): 9438-9444. AbstractWebsite

Although there are a few research studies on solution-processed p-channel oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs), the strict fabrication conditions and the poor electrical properties have limited their applications in low-power complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics. Here, the application of the polyol reduction method for processing p-type CuxO and NiOx channel layers and their implementation in TFT devices are reported. The optimized CuxO and NiOx TFTs were achieved at low annealing temperatures (∼300 °C) and exhibited decent electrical properties. Encouraged by the inspiring results obtained on SiO2/Si substrates, the TFT performance was further optimized by device engineering, employing high-k AlOx as the gate dielectric. The fully solution-processed NiOx/AlOx TFT could be operated at a low voltage of 3.5 V and exhibits a high hole mobility of around 25 cm2 V-1 s-1. Our work demonstrates the ability to grow high-quality p-type oxide films and devices via the polyol reduction method over large area substrates while at the same time it provides guidelines for further p-type oxide material and device improvements. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

g Lorenz, M.a, Ramachandra Rao Venkatesan Fortunato Barquinha Branquinho Salgueiro Martins Carlos Liu Shan Grundmann Boschker Mukherjee Priyada M. S. b T. "The 2016 oxide electronic materials and oxide interfaces roadmap." Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. 49 (2016). AbstractWebsite

Oxide electronic materials provide a plethora of possible applications and offer ample opportunity for scientists to probe into some of the exciting and intriguing phenomena exhibited by oxide systems and oxide interfaces. In addition to the already diverse spectrum of properties, the nanoscale form of oxides provides a new dimension of hitherto unknown phenomena due to the increased surface-to-volume ratio. Oxide electronic materials are becoming increasingly important in a wide range of applications including transparent electronics, optoelectronics, magnetoelectronics, photonics, spintronics, thermoelectrics, piezoelectrics, power harvesting, hydrogen storage and environmental waste management. Synthesis and fabrication of these materials, as well as processing into particular device structures to suit a specific application is still a challenge. Further, characterization of these materials to understand the tunability of their properties and the novel properties that evolve due to their nanostructured nature is another facet of the challenge. The research related to the oxide electronic field is at an impressionable stage, and this has motivated us to contribute with a roadmap on 'oxide electronic materials and oxide interfaces'. This roadmap envisages the potential applications of oxide materials in cutting edge technologies and focuses on the necessary advances required to implement these materials, including both conventional and novel techniques for the synthesis, characterization, processing and fabrication of nanostructured oxides and oxide-based devices. The contents of this roadmap will highlight the functional and correlated properties of oxides in bulk, nano, thin film, multilayer and heterostructure forms, as well as the theoretical considerations behind both present and future applications in many technologically important areas as pointed out by Venkatesan. The contributions in this roadmap span several thematic groups which are represented by the following authors: novel field effect transistors and bipolar devices by Fortunato, Grundmann, Boschker, Rao, and Rogers; energy conversion and saving by Zaban, Weidenkaff, and Murakami; new opportunities of photonics by Fompeyrine, and Zuniga-Perez; multiferroic materials including novel phenomena by Ramesh, Spaldin, Mertig, Lorenz, Srinivasan, and Prellier; and concepts for topological oxide electronics by Kawasaki, Pentcheva, and Gegenwart. Finally, Miletto Granozio presents the European action 'towards oxide-based electronics' which develops an oxide electronics roadmap with emphasis on future nonvolatile memories and the required technologies. In summary, we do hope that this oxide roadmap appears as an interesting up-to-date snapshot on one of the most exciting and active areas of solid state physics, materials science, and chemistry, which even after many years of very successful development shows in short intervals novel insights and achievements. Guest editors: M S Ramachandra Rao and Michael Lorenz. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Bahubalindruni, P.G.a, Tavares Barquinha Martins Fortunato V. c P. b. "Basic analog and digital circuits with a-IGZO TFTs." 2016 13th International Conference on Synthesis, Modeling, Analysis and Simulation Methods and Applications to Circuit Design, SMACD 2016. 2016. Abstract

This paper presents the characterization of fundamental analog and digital circuits with a-IGZO TFTs from measurements performed at normal ambient. The fundamental blocks considered in this work include digital logic gates, a low-power single stage high-gain amplifier with capcacitive bootstrapping and a level shifter/buffer. These circuits are important functional blocks in analog/Mixed signal IC design with oxide TFTs. Being fabricated at low temperature (< 200 °C), they can find potential applications in low-cost large-area flexible systems. © 2016 IEEE.

c Nunes, D.a, Calmeiro Nandy Pinto Pimentel Barquinha Carvalho Walmsley Fortunato Martins T. R. a S. "Charging effects and surface potential variations of Cu-based nanowires." Thin Solid Films. 601 (2016): 45-53. AbstractWebsite

The present work reports charging effects and surface potential variations in pure copper, cuprous oxide and cupric oxide nanowires observed by electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). The copper nanowires were produced by wet synthesis, oxidation into cuprous oxide nanowires was achieved through microwave irradiation and cupric oxide nanowires were obtained via furnace annealing in atmospheric conditions. Structural characterization of the nanowires was carried out by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. During the EFM experiments the electrostatic field of the positive probe charged negatively the Cu-based nanowires, which in turn polarized the SiO2 dielectric substrate. Both the probe/nanowire capacitance as well as the substrate polarization increased with the applied bias. Cu2O and CuO nanowires behaved distinctively during the EFM measurements in accordance with their band gap energies. The work functions (WF) of the Cu-based nanowires, obtained by KPFM measurements, yielded WFCuO > WFCu > WFCu2O. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Moldovan, O.a, Castro-Carranza Cerdeira Estrada Barquinha Martins Fortunato Miljakovic Iñiguez A. b A. c. "A compact model and direct parameters extraction techniques For amorphous gallium-indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors." Solid-State Electronics. 126 (2016): 81-86. AbstractWebsite

An advanced compact and analytical drain current model for the amorphous gallium indium zinc oxide (GIZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) is proposed. Its output saturation behavior is improved by introducing a new asymptotic function. All model parameters were extracted using an adapted version of the Universal Method and Extraction Procedure (UMEM) applied for the first time for GIZO devices in a simple and direct form. We demonstrate the correct behavior of the model for negative VDS, a necessity for a complete compact model. In this way we prove the symmetry of source and drain electrodes and extend the range of applications to both signs of VDS. The model, in Verilog-A code, is implemented in Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools, such as Smart Spice, and compared with measurements of TFTs. It describes accurately the experimental characteristics in the whole range of GIZO TFTs operation, making the model suitable for the design of circuits using these types of devices. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Mendes, M.J., Araújo Vicente Águas Ferreira Fortunato Martins A. A. H. "Design of optimized wave-optical spheroidal nanostructures for photonic-enhanced solar cells." Nano Energy. 26 (2016): 286-296. AbstractWebsite

The interaction of light with wavelength-sized photonic nanostructures is highly promising for light management applied to thin-film photovoltaics. Several light trapping effects come into play in the wave optics regime of such structures that crucially depend on the parameters of the photonic and absorbing elements. Thus, multi-parameter optimizations employing exact numerical models, as performed in this work, are essential to determine the maximum photocurrent enhancement that can be produced in solar cells.Generalized spheroidal geometries and high-index dielectric materials are considered here to model the design of the optical elements providing broadband absorption enhancement in planar silicon solar cells. The physical mechanisms responsible for such enhancement are schematized in a spectral diagram, providing a deeper understanding of the advantageous characteristics of the optimized geometries. The best structures, composed of TiO2 half-spheroids patterned on the cells' top surface, yield two times higher photocurrent (up to 32.5 mA/cm2 in 1.5 μm thick silicon layer) than the same devices without photonic schemes.These results set the state-of-the-art closer to the theoretical Lambertian limit. In addition, the considered light trapping designs are not affected by the traditional compromise between absorption enhancement versus current degradation by recombination, which is a key technological advantage. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

c Deuermeier, J.a b, Wardenga Morasch Siol Nandy Calmeiro Martins Klein Fortunato H. F. b J. "Highly conductive grain boundaries in copper oxide thin films." Journal of Applied Physics. 119 (2016). AbstractWebsite

High conductivity in the off-state and low field-effect mobility compared to bulk properties is widely observed in the p-type thin-film transistors of Cu2O, especially when processed at moderate temperature. This work presents results from in situ conductance measurements at thicknesses from sub-nm to around 250 nm with parallel X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An enhanced conductivity at low thickness is explained by the occurrence of Cu(II), which is segregated in the grain boundary and locally causes a conductivity similar to CuO, although the surface of the thick film has Cu2O stoichiometry. Since grains grow with an increasing film thickness, the effect of an apparent oxygen excess is most pronounced in vicinity to the substrate interface. Electrical properties of Cu2O grains are at least partially short-circuited by this effect. The study focuses on properties inherent to copper oxide, although interface effects cannot be ruled out. This non-destructive, bottom-up analysis reveals phenomena which are commonly not observable after device fabrication, but clearly dominate electrical properties of polycrystalline thin films. © 2016 Author(s).

b c b c b c Liu, A.a b c, Liu Zhu Shin Fortunato Martins Shan G. a H. a. "Hole mobility modulation of solution-processed nickel oxide thin-film transistor based on high-k dielectric." Applied Physics Letters. 108 (2016). AbstractWebsite

Solution-processed p-type oxide semiconductors have recently attracted increasing interests for the applications in low-cost optoelectronic devices and low-power consumption complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits. In this work, p-type nickel oxide (NiOx) thin films were prepared using low-temperature solution process and integrated as the channel layer in thin-film transistors (TFTs). The electrical properties of NiOx TFTs, together with the characteristics of NiOx thin films, were systematically investigated as a function of annealing temperature. By introducing aqueous high-k aluminum oxide (Al2O3) gate dielectric, the electrical performance of NiOx TFT was improved significantly compared with those based on SiO2 dielectric. Particularly, the hole mobility was found to be 60 times enhancement, quantitatively from 0.07 to 4.4 cm2/V s, which is mainly beneficial from the high areal capacitance of the Al2O3 dielectric and high-quality NiOx/Al2O3 interface. This simple solution-based method for producing p-type oxide TFTs is promising for next-generation oxide-based electronic applications. © 2016 Author(s).

e d Pereira, F.M.a b, Bernacka-Wojcik Ribeiro Lobato Fortunato Martins Igreja Jorge Águas Oliva I. a R. S. "Hybrid microfluidic platform for multifactorial analysis based on electrical impedance, refractometry, optical absorption and fluorescence." Micromachines. 7 (2016). AbstractWebsite

This paper describes the development of a novel microfluidic platform for multifactorial analysis integrating four label-free detection methods: electrical impedance, refractometry, optical absorption and fluorescence. We present the rationale for the design and the details of the microfabrication of this multifactorial hybrid microfluidic chip. The structure of the platform consists of a three-dimensionally patterned polydimethylsiloxane top part attached to a bottom SU-8 epoxy-based negative photoresist part, where microelectrodes and optical fibers are incorporated to enable impedance and optical analysis. As a proof of concept, the chip functions have been tested and explored, enabling a diversity of applications: (i) impedance-based identification of the size of micro beads, as well as counting and distinguishing of erythrocytes by their volume or membrane properties; (ii) simultaneous determination of the refractive index and optical absorption properties of solutions; and (iii) fluorescence-based bead counting. © 2016 by the authors.

c Kiazadeh, A.a b, Gomes Barquinha Martins Rovisco Pinto Martins Fortunato H. L. b P. "Improving positive and negative bias illumination stress stability in parylene passivated IGZO transistors." Applied Physics Letters. 109 (2016). AbstractWebsite

The impact of a parylene top-coating layer on the illumination and bias stress instabilities of indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) is presented and discussed. The parylene coating substantially reduces the threshold voltage shift caused by continuous application of a gate bias and light exposure. The operational stability improves by 75%, and the light induced instability is reduced by 35%. The operational stability is quantified by fitting the threshold voltage shift with a stretched exponential model. Storage time as long as 7 months does not cause any measurable degradation on the electrical performance. It is proposed that parylene plays not only the role of an encapsulation layer but also of a defect passivation on the top semiconductor surface. It is also reported that depletion-mode TFTs are less sensitive to light induced instabilities. This is attributed to a defect neutralization process in the presence of free electrons. © 2016 Author(s).

Bahubalindruni, P.G.a, Kiazadeh Sacchetti Martins Rovisco Tavares Martins Fortunato Barquinha A. b A. b. "Influence of Channel Length Scaling on InGaZnO TFTs Characteristics: Unity Current-Gain Cutoff Frequency, Intrinsic Voltage-Gain, and On-Resistance." Journal of Display Technology. 12 (2016): 515-518. AbstractWebsite

This paper presents a study concerning the role of channel length scaling on IGZO TFT technology benchmark parameters, which are fabricated at temperatures not exceeding 180\, ^{\circ}C. The parameters under investigation are unity current-gain cutoff frequency, intrinsic voltage-gain, and on-resistance of the bottom-gate IGZO TFTs. As the channel length varies from 160 to 3 μm, the measured cutoff frequency increases from 163 {\rm kHz} to 111.5 {\rm MHz}, which is a superior value compared to the other competing low-temperature thin-film technologies, such as organic TFTs. On the other hand, for the same transistor dimensions, the measured intrinsic voltage-gain is changing from 165 to 5.3 and the on-resistance is decreasing from 1135.6 to 26.1 kØmega. TFTs with smaller channel length (3 μ m) have shown a highly negative turn-on voltage and hump in the subthreshold region, which can be attributed to short channel effects. The results obtained here, together with their interpretation based on device physics, provide crucial information for accurate IC design, enabling an adequate selection of device dimensions to maximize the performance of different circuit building blocks assuring the multifunctionality demanded by system-on-panel concepts. © 2005-2012 IEEE.

Lyubchyk, A., Vicente Alves Catela Soule Mateus Mendes Águas Fortunato Martins A. P. U. "Influence of post-deposition annealing on electrical and optical properties of ZnO-based TCOs deposited at room temperature." Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials Science. 213 (2016): 2317-2328. AbstractWebsite

The post-deposition modification of ZnO-based transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) can be the key to produce thin films with optoelectronic properties similar to indium tin oxide (ITO), but at a much lower cost. Here, we present electro-optical results achieved for post-deposition annealing of Al–Zn–O (AZO), AZO:H, Ga–Zn–O:H (GZO:H), and Zn–O:H (ZNO:H) thin films deposited by RF sputtering at room temperature. These studies comprise results of thermal annealing at atmospheric pressure, vacuum, forming gas, H2 and Ar atmospheres, and H2 and Ar plasmas, which lead to significant enhancement of their electro-optical properties, which are correlated to morphological and structural improvements. The post-deposition annealing leads to an enhancement in resistivity above 40% for AZO, AZO:H, and GZO:H, reaching ρ ≈ 2.6–3.5 × 10−4 Ωcm, while ZnO:H showed a lower improvement of 13%. The averaged optical transmittance in the visible region is about 89% for the investigated TCOs. Such results match the properties of state-of-art ITO (ρ ≈ 10−4 Ωcm and transmittance in VIS range of 90%) employing much more earth-abundant materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

Zubizarreta, C.a, G-Berasategui Ciarsolo Barriga Gaspar Martins Fortunato E. a I. a. "The influence of target erosion grade in the optoelectronic properties of AZO coatings growth by magnetron sputtering." Applied Surface Science. 380 (2016): 218-222. AbstractWebsite

Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) transparent conductor coating has emerged as promising substitute to tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) as electrode in optoelectronic applications such as photovoltaics or light emitting diodes (LEDs). Besides its high transmission in the visible spectral region and low resistivity, AZO presents a main advantage over other candidates such as graphene, carbon nanotubes or silver nanowires; it can be deposited using the technology industrially implemented to manufacture ITO layers, the magnetron sputtering (MS). This is a productive, reliable and green manufacturing technique. But to guarantee the robustness, reproducibility and reliability of the process there are still some issues to be addressed, such as the effect and control of the target state. In this paper a thorough study of the influence of the target erosion grade in developed coatings has been performed. AZO films have been deposited from a ceramic target by RF MS. Structure, optical transmittance and electrical properties of the produced coatings have been analyzed as function of the target erosion grade. No noticeable differences have been found neither in optoelectronic properties nor in the structure of the coatings, indicating that the RF MS is a stable and consistent process through the whole life of the target. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Araújo, A., Mendes Mateus Vicente Nunes Calmeiro Fortunato Águas Martins M. J. T. "Influence of the Substrate on the Morphology of Self-Assembled Silver Nanoparticles by Rapid Thermal Annealing." Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 120 (2016): 18235-18242. AbstractWebsite

Metal nanoparticles are of great interest for light trapping in photovoltaics. They are usually incorporated in the rear electrode of solar cells, providing strong light scattering at their surface plasmon resonances. In most cases, the nanoparticles are self-assembled by solid-state dewetting over a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer incorporated in the cell's rear electrode. Up to now, this process has been optimized mainly by tuning the thermal annealing parameters responsible for dewetting, or the thickness of the precursor metallic layer; but little attention has been paid to the influence of the underlying TCO layer properties on the morphology of the nanoparticles formed, which is the focus of the present article. This work investigates Ag nanoparticles structures produced on distinct surfaces by a simple, fast and highly reproducible method employing rapid thermal annealing. The results indicate that both the thermal conductivity and surface roughness of the TCO layer play a determinant role on the morphology of the nanostructures formed. This is of particular relevance, since we show in the study performed that the parasitic absorption of these Ag nanostructures is reduced, while the scattering is enhanced when the Ag nanostructures are formed on TCO layers with the highest conductivity and the lowest surface roughness (∼1 nm). These results unveil novel possibilities for the improvement of plasmonic nanostructures fabricated by thermal dewetting, via the careful adjustment of the physical properties of the underlying surface. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

Bahubalindruni, P.G.a, Tavares Borme De Oliveira Martins Fortunato Barquinha V. G. b J. "InGaZnO thin-film-transistor-based four-quadrant high-gain analog multiplier on glass." IEEE Electron Device Letters. 37 (2016): 419-421. AbstractWebsite

This letter presents a novel high-gain four-quadrant analog multiplier using only n-type enhancement indium- gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film-transistors. The proposed circuit improves the gain by using an active load with positive feedback. A Gilbert cell with a diode-connected load is also presented for comparison purposes. Both circuits were fabricated on glass at low temperature (200 °C) and were successfully characterized at room temperature under normal ambient conditions, with a power supply of 15 V and 4-pF capacitive load. The novel circuit has shown a gain improvement of 7.2 dB over the Gilbert cell with the diode-connected load. Static linearity response, total harmonic distortion, frequency response, and power consumption are reported. This circuit is an important signal processing building block in large-area sensing and readout systems, specially if data communication is involved. © 2016 IEEE.

b Bernacka-Wojcik, I.a b, Wojcik Aguas Fortunato Martins P. J. a H. "Inkjet printed highly porous TiO2 films for improved electrical properties of photoanode." Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 465 (2016): 208-214. AbstractWebsite

The aim of presented work is to show the improvements obtained in the properties of TiO2 films for dye sensitized solar cells fabricated by inkjet printing using an innovative methodology. We describe the development and properties of TiO2-based inks used in a lab-scale printer, testing various commercial TiO2 pastes. The porosity of the deposited inkjet printed TiO2 films is much higher than using the conventional "doctor blade" deposition technique, as the ink solvent evaporates during the droplet fly from the nozzle to the substrate due to its picoliter volume and the applied heating of a printing stage (70°C). Thanks to higher surface area, the dye sensitized solar cells incorporating inkjet printed TiO2 film gave higher efficiencies (ηmax≈3.06%) than the more compact films obtained by the "doctor blade" method (ηmax≈2.56%). Furthermore, electrochemical analysis indicates that for whole tested thickness range, the inkjet printed layers have higher effective electron diffusion length indicating their better transport properties. © 2015 Elsevier Inc..

Jin, J.W.a, Nathan Barquinha Pereira Fortunato Martins Cobb A. b P. c. "Interpreting anomalies observed in oxide semiconductor TFTs under negative and positive bias stress." AIP Advances. 6 (2016). AbstractWebsite

Oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors can show anomalous behavior under bias stress. Two types of anomalies are discussed in this paper. The first is the shift in threshold voltage (VTH) in a direction opposite to the applied bias stress, and highly dependent on gate dielectric material. We attribute this to charge trapping/detrapping and charge migration within the gate dielectric. We emphasize the fundamental difference between trapping/detrapping events occurring at the semiconductor/dielectric interface and those occurring at gate/dielectric interface, and show that charge migration is essential to explain the first anomaly. We model charge migration in terms of the non-instantaneous polarization density. The second type of anomaly is negative VTH shift under high positive bias stress, with logarithmic evolution in time. This can be argued as electron-donating reactions involving H2O molecules or derived species, with a reaction rate exponentially accelerated by positive gate bias and exponentially decreased by the number of reactions already occurred. © 2016 Author(s).

Wojcik, P.J., Pereira Martins Fortunato L. R. E. Metal oxide nanoparticle engineering for printed electrochemical applications. Handbook of Nanoelectrochemistry: Electrochemical Synthesis Methods, Properties, and Characterization Techniques., 2016. AbstractWebsite

Engineering procedures governing the selection or development of printable nanostructured metal oxide nanoparticles for chromic, photovoltaic, photocatalytic, sensing, electrolyte-gated TFTs, and power storage applications are established in this chapter. The main focus is given on how to perform the material selection and formulation of printable dispersion in order to develop functional films for electrochemical applications. This chapter is divided into four main parts. Firstly, a brief introduction on electrochemically active nanocrystalline metal oxide films developed via printing techniques is given. This is followed by the description of the film morphology, structure, and required functionality. A theoretical approach to understand the impact of size and shape of nanoparticles on an ink formulation and electrochemical performance being the subject of the third section provides a greater control over the material selection. We attempt to describe these properties and show that for a given material, geometry and size of the nanoparticles have a major influence on the electrochemical reactivity and response time. This gives the ability to tune the performance of the film simply by varying the morphology of incorporated nanostructures. This section is completed by the recommendations on each major step of an ink formulation, together with imposed critical constraints concerning the fluid control. Finally, the performance of the ink-jetprinted dual-phase electrochromic films is discussed as a case study. By providing such a rather systematic survey, we aim to stress the importance of proper design strategy that would result in both improved physicochemical properties of nanoparticle-loaded inks and enhanced electrochemical performance of printed functional films. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

Pimentel, A., Ferreira Nunes Calmeiro Martins Fortunato S. H. D. "Microwave synthesized ZnO nanorod arrays for UV sensors: A seed layer annealing temperature study." Materials. 9 (2016). AbstractWebsite

The present work reports the influence of zinc oxide (ZnO) seed layer annealing temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanorod arrays, synthesized by hydrothermal method assisted by microwave radiation, to be used as UV sensors. The ZnO seed layer was produced using the spin-coating method and several annealing temperatures, ranging from 100 to 500 °C, have been tested. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectrophotometry measurements have been used to investigate the structure, morphology, and optical properties variations of the produced ZnO nanorod arrays regarding the seed layer annealing temperatures employed. After the growth of ZnO nanorod arrays, the whole structure was tested as UV sensors, showing an increase in the sensitivity with the increase of seed layer annealing temperature. The UV sensor response of ZnO nanorod arrays produced with the seed layer annealed temperature of 500 °C was 50 times superior to the ones produced with a seed layer annealed at 100 °C. © 2016 by the authors.

Bahubalindruni, P.G.a c, Tavares Fortunato Martins Barquinha V. G. b E. "Novel linear analog-adder using a-IGZO TFTs." Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems. Vol. 2016-July. 2016. 2098-2101. Abstract

A novel linear analog adder is proposed only with n-type enhancement IGZO TFTs that computes summation of four voltage signals. However, this design can be easily extended to perform summation of higher number of signals, just by adding a single TFT for each additional signal in the input block. The circuit needs few number of transistors, only a single power supply irrespective of the number of voltage signals to be added, and offers good accuracy over a reasonable range of input values. The circuit was fabricated on glass substrate with the annealing temperature not exceeding 200° C. The circuit performance is characterized from measurements under normal ambient at room temperature, with a power supply voltage of 12 V and a load of ≈ 4 pF. The designed circuit has shown a linearity error of 2.3% (until input signal peak to peak value is 2 V), a power consumption of 78 μW and a bandwidth of ≈ 115 kHz, under the worst case condition (when it is adding four signals with the same frequency). In this test setup, it has been noticed that the second harmonic is 32 dB below the fundamental frequency component. This circuit could offer an economic alternative to the conventional approaches, being an important contribution to increase the functionality of large area flexible electronics. © 2016 IEEE.

Panigrahi, S., Calmeiro Martins Nunes Fortunato T. R. D. "Observation of Space Charge Dynamics Inside an All Oxide Based Solar Cell." ACS Nano. 10 (2016): 6139-6146. AbstractWebsite

The charge transfer dynamics at interfaces are fundamental to know the mechanism of photovoltaic processes. The internal potential in solar cell devices depends on the basic processes of photovoltaic effect such as charge carrier generation, separation, transport, recombination, etc. Here we report the direct observation of the surface potential depth profile over the cross-section of the ZnO nanorods/Cu2O based solar cell for two different layer thicknesses at different wavelengths of light using Kelvin probe force microscopy. The topography and phase images across the cross-section of the solar cell are also observed, where the interfaces are well-defined on the nanoscale. The potential profiling results demonstrate that under white light illumination, the photoinduced electrons in Cu2O inject into ZnO due to the interfacial electric field, which results in the large difference in surface potential between two active layers. However, under a single wavelength illumination, the charge carrier generation, separation, and transport processes between two active layers are limited, which affect the surface potential images and corresponding potential depth profile. Because of changes in the active layer thicknesses, small variations have been observed in the charge carrier transport mechanism inside the device. These results provide the clear idea about the charge carrier distribution inside the solar cell in different conditions and show the perfect illumination condition for large carrier transport in a high performance solar cell. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

Oliveira, M.a, Liang Almeida Vistas Gonçalves Martins D. a J. a. "A path to renewable Mg reduction from MgO by a continuous-wave Cr:Nd:YAG ceramic solar laser." Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. 155 (2016): 430-435. AbstractWebsite

The first successful ablation of magnesium oxide through a home-made continuous-wave Cr:Nd:YAG ceramic solar laser is reported. A stationary heliostat-parabolic mirror solar energy collection and concentration system was used. A stable continuous-wave laser output power of 19.2 W was attained with laser beam brightness figure of merit 7.6 times higher than that of the previous scheme, enabling therefore the direct ablation of pure magnesium by our solar-pumped laser with only 1.6 m2 effective collection area. This could be an important step towards renewable magnesium production, offering multiple advantages, such as reducing agent avoidance, in relation to that of the previous Fresnel lens Cr:Nd:YAG continuous-wave solar laser system. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

c Nunes, D.a, Pimentel Pinto Calmeiro Nandy Barquinha Pereira Carvalho Fortunato Martins A. a J. V. "Photocatalytic behavior of TiO2 films synthesized by microwave irradiation." Catalysis Today. 278 (2016): 262-270. AbstractWebsite

Titanium dioxide was synthesized on glass substrates from titanium (IV)isopropoxide and hydrochloride acid aqueous solutions through microwave irradiation using as seed layer either fluorine-doped crystalline tin oxide (SnO2:F) or amorphous tin oxide (a-SnOx). Three routes have been followed with distinct outcome: (i) equimolar hydrochloride acid/water proportions (1HCl:1water) resulted in nanorod arrays for both seed layers; (ii) higher water proportion (1HCl:3water) originated denser films with growth yield dependent on the seed layer employed; while (iii) higher acid proportion (3HCl:1water) hindered the formation of TiO2. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the materials crystallized with the rutile structure, possibly with minute fractions of brookite and/or anatase. XRD peak inversions observed for the materials synthesized on crystalline seeds pointed to preferred crystallographic orientation. Electron diffraction showed that the especially strong XRD peak inversions observed for TiO2 grown from the 1HCl:3water solution on SnO2:F originated from a [001] fiber texture. Transmittance spectrophotometry showed that the materials with finer structure exhibited significantly higher optical band gaps. Photocatalytic activity was assessed from methylene blue degradation, with the 1HCl:3water SnO2:F material showing remarkable degradability performance, attributed to a higher exposure of (001) facets, together with stability and reusability. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Cramer, T.a, Sacchetti Lobato Barquinha Fischer Benwadih Bablet Fortunato Martins Fraboni A. a M. T. "Radiation-Tolerant Flexible Large-Area Electronics Based on Oxide Semiconductors." Advanced Electronic Materials. 2 (2016). AbstractWebsite

Large-area electronics for applications in environments with radioactive contamination or medical X-ray detectors require materials and devices resistant to continuous ionizing radiation exposure. Here the superior X-ray radiation hardness of oxide thin film transistors (TFTs) based on gallium-indium-zinc oxide is demonstrated, when compared to organic ones. In the experiments both TFTs are subjected to X-ray radiation and their performances are monitored as a function of total ionizing dose. Flexible oxide TFTs maintain a constant mobility of 10 cm2 V−1 s−1 even after exposure to doses of 410 krad(SiO2), whereas organic TFTs lose 55% of their transport performance. The exceptional resistance of oxide semiconductors ionization damage is attributed to their intrinsic properties such as independence of transport on long-range order and large heat of formation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim