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2012
Pinto, R. M., A. A. Dias, M. Coreno, M. de Simone, B. M. Giuliano, J. P. Santos, and M. L. Costa. "Tautomerism in 5-aminotetrazole investigated by core-level photoelectron spectroscopy and ΔSCF calculations." Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena 185 (2012): 13-17. AbstractWebsite

The C 1s and N 1s photoelectron spectra of gas-phase 5-aminotetrazole (5ATZ) were recorded using synchrotron radiation, with the aim of evaluating 1H/2H tautomer population ratios. The core-electron binding energies (CEBEs) were estimated from computational results, using the delta self-consistent-field (ΔSCF) approach. Simulated spectra were generated using these CEBEs and the results from Gaussian-n (Gn, n=1, 2 and 3) and Complete Basis Set (CBS-4M and CBS-Q) methods. Results reveal the almost exclusive predominance of the 2H-tautomer, with a 1H/2H ratio of ca. 0.12/0.88, taken from a gross analysis of the XPS C 1s spectrum, recorded at 365 K.

2011
Pinto, R. M., A. A. Dias, M. Coreno, M. de Simone, B. M. Giuliano, J. P. Santos, and M. L. Costa. "Tautomerism in 5-methyltetrazole investigated by core-level photoelectron spectroscopy and ΔSCF calculations." Chemical Physics Letters 516 (2011): 149-153. AbstractWebsite

Chemical Physics Letters, 516 (2011) 149-153. doi:10.1016/j.cplett.2011.10.001

Amaro, P., A. Surzhykov, F. Parente, P. Indelicato, and J. P. Santos. "Calculation of two-photon decay rates of hydrogen-like ions by using B-polynomials." Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical 44 (2011): 245302. AbstractWebsite
A new approach is laid out to investigate two-photon atomic transitions. It is based on the application of the finite-basis solutions constructed from the Bernstein polynomial (B-polynomial) sets. We show that such an approach provides a very promising route for the relativistic second-order (and even higher-order) calculations since it allows for analytical evaluation of the involved matrices elements. In order to illustrate possible applications of the method and to verify its accuracy, detailed calculations are performed for the 2 s 1/2 ‚Üí 1 s 1/2 transition in neutral hydrogen and hydrogen-like ions, which are compared with the theoretical predictions based on the well-established B-spline basis-set approach.
Amaro, P., A. Surzhykov, F. Parente, P. Indelicato, and J. P. Santos. "Calculation of two-photon decay rates of hydrogen-like ions by using B-polynomials." Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical 44 (2011): 245302. AbstractWebsite

A new approach is laid out to investigate two-photon atomic transitions. It is based on the application of the finite-basis solutions constructed from the Bernstein polynomial (B-polynomial) sets. We show that such an approach provides a very promising route for the relativistic second-order (and even higher-order) calculations since it allows for analytical evaluation of the involved matrices elements. In order to illustrate possible applications of the method and to verify its accuracy, detailed calculations are performed for the 2 s 1/2 ‚Üí 1 s 1/2 transition in neutral hydrogen and hydrogen-like ions, which are compared with the theoretical predictions based on the well-established B-spline basis-set approach.

Santos, J. P., A. M. Costa, M. C. Martins, P. Indelicato, and F. Parente. "K X-Ray Energies and Transition Probabilities for He-, Li- and Be-like Praseodymium ions." Journal of Physics: Conference Series Accepted (2011).
Guimarães, D., M. L. Carvalho, M. Becker, A. von Bohlen, V. Geraldes, I. Rocha, and J. P. Santos. "Lead concentration in feces and urine of exposed rats by X-ray Fluorescence and Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry." X-Ray Spectrometry In press (2011). Abstract
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Guerra, M., F. Parente, P. Indelicato, and J. P. Santos. "Modified binary encounter Bethe model for electron-impact ionization." International Journal of Mass Spectrometry Accepted (2011). Abstract

Theoretical expressions for ionization cross sections by electron impact based on the binary encounter Bethe (BEB) model, valid from ionization threshold up to relativistic energies, are proposed.The new modified BEB (MBEB) and its relativistic counterpart (MRBEB) expressions are simpler than the BEB (nonrelativistic and relativistic) expressions because they require only one atomic parameter, namely the binding energy of the electrons to be ionized, and use only one scaling term for the ionization of all sub-shells.The new models are used to calculate the K-, L- and M-shell ionization cross sections by electron impact for several atoms with Z from 6 to 83.Comparisons with all, to the best of our knowledge, available experimental data show that this model is as good or better than other models, with less complexity.

Santos, J. P., M. Guerra, and F. Parente. "New expression for the K-shell ionization." Journal of Physics: Conference Series Accepted (2011).
Santos, J. P., M. C. Martins, A. M. Costa, J. P. Marques, P. Indelicato, and F. Parente. "Production and decay of chlorine ion excited species in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma." Physica Scripta T144 (2011): 014005. AbstractWebsite

The most important processes for the creation of chlorine ion excited states from the ground configurations of Cl 10+ to Cl 15+ ions in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source, leading to the emission of K x-ray lines, were studied. Theoretical values for inner-shell excitation and ionization cross-sections, including double KL and triple KLL ionization, transition probabilities and energies for the de-excitation processes, were calculated in the framework of the multi-configuration Dirac–Fock method. With reasonable assumptions about the electron energy distribution, a theoretical Kα x-ray spectrum was obtained, which was then compared with recent experimental data.

Santos, J. P., M. C. Martins, A. M. Costa, J. P. Marques, P. Indelicato, and F. Parente. "Production and decay of chlorine ion excited species in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma." Physica Scripta T144 (2011): 014005. AbstractWebsite

The most important processes for the creation of chlorine ion excited states from the ground configurations of Cl 10+ to Cl 15+ ions in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source, leading to the emission of K x-ray lines, were studied. Theoretical values for inner-shell excitation and ionization cross-sections, including double KL and triple KLL ionization, transition probabilities and energies for the de-excitation processes, were calculated in the framework of the multi-configuration Dirac–Fock method. With reasonable assumptions about the electron energy distribution, a theoretical Kα x-ray spectrum was obtained, which was then compared with recent experimental data.

Santos, J., A. Costa, C. Madruga, F. Parente, and P. Indelicato. "Relativistic transition wavelenghts and probabilities for spectral lines of Ne II." The European Physical Journal D - Atomic, Molecular, Optical and Plasma Physics 63 (2011): 89-96. AbstractWebsite

Transition wavelengths and probabilities for several 2 p 4 3 p -2 p 4 3 s and 2 p 4 3 d -2 p 4 3 p lines in fluorine-like neon ion (NeII) have been calculated within the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method with quantum electrodynamics (QED) corrections. The results are compared with all existing experimental and theoretical data.

Santos, J. P., A. Costa, C. Madruga, F. Parente, and P. Indelicato. "Relativistic transition wavelenghts and probabilities for spectral lines of Ne II." The European Physical Journal D 63 (2011): 89-96. AbstractWebsite

Transition wavelengths and probabilities for several 2 p 4 3 p -2 p 4 3 s and 2 p 4 3 d -2 p 4 3 p lines in fluorine-like neon ion (NeII) have been calculated within the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method with quantum electrodynamics (QED) corrections. The results are compared with all existing experimental and theoretical data.

Guimarães, D., M. L. Carvalho, V. Geraldes, I. Rocha, and J. P. Santos. "Study of lead accumulation in bones of Wistar rats by X-ray fluorescence analysis: aging effect." Metallomics In Press (2011): DOI: 10.1039/c1mt00149c. AbstractWebsite

The accumulation of lead in several bones of Wistar rats with time was determined and comparedQ3 for the different types of bones. Two groups were studied: a control group (n = 20), not exposedto lead and a contaminated group (n = 30), exposed to lead from birth, first indirectly throughmother’s milk, and then directly through a diet containing lead acetate in drinking water (0.2%).Rats age ranged from 1 to 11 months, with approximately 1 month intervals and each of thecollections had 3 contaminated rats and 2 control rats. Iliac, femur, tibia–fibula and skull havebeen analysed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF). Samples offormaldehyde used to preserve the bone tissues were also analysed by Electrothermal AtomicAbsorption (ETAAS), showing that there was no significant loss of lead from the tissue to thepreservative. The bones mean lead concentration of exposed rats range from 100 to 300 mg g 1while control rats never exceeded 10 mg g 1. Mean bone lead concentrations were compared andthe concentrations were higher in iliac, femur and tibia–fibula and after that skull. However, ofall the concentrations in the different collections, only those in the skull were statisticallyQ4 significantly different (p o 0.05) from the other types of bones. Analysis of a radar chart alsoallowed us to say that these differences tend to diminish with age. The Spearman correlation testapplied to mean lead concentrations showed strong and very strong positive correlations betweenall different types of bones. This test also showed that mean lead concentrations in bones arenegatively correlated with the age of the animals. This correlation is strong in iliac and femur andvery strong in tibia–fibula and skull. It was also shown that the decrease of lead accumulationwith age is made by three plateaus of accumulation,

Pinto, R. M., A. A. Dias, M. Coreno, M. de Simone, B. M. Giuliano, J. P. Santos, and M. L. Costa. "Tautomerism in 5-methyltetrazole investigated by core-level photoelectron spectroscopy and ΔSCF calculations." Chemical Physics Letters 516 (2011): 149-153. AbstractWebsite

The relative populations of the 1H- and 2H-tautomer of gas-phase 5-methyltetrazole (5MTZ) have been assessed through core-level photoelectron spectroscopy, and compared with the results obtained from Gaussian-n (Gn, n = 1, 2 and 3) and Complete Basis Set methods (CBS-4M and CBS-Q). The C 1s and N 1s core‚Äìelectron binding energies (CEBEs) for each ionization site of both tautomers have been computed using the Œîself-consistent-field (ŒîSCF) approach. The C 1s and N 1s XPS spectra, obtained at 313 K, yield a 1H/2H tautomer ratio of ca. 0.16/0.84 and 0.21/0.79, respectively.

Pinto, R. M., A. A. Dias, M. Coreno, M. de Simone, B. M. Giuliano, J. P. Santos, and M. L. Costa. "Tautomerism in 5-methyltetrazole investigated by core-level photoelectron spectroscopy and ΔSCF calculations." Chemical Physics Letters 516 (2011): 149-153. AbstractWebsite

The relative populations of the 1H- and 2H-tautomer of gas-phase 5-methyltetrazole (5MTZ) have been assessed through core-level photoelectron spectroscopy, and compared with the results obtained from Gaussian-n (Gn, n = 1, 2 and 3) and Complete Basis Set methods (CBS-4M and CBS-Q). The C 1s and N 1s core‚Äìelectron binding energies (CEBEs) for each ionization site of both tautomers have been computed using the Œîself-consistent-field (ŒîSCF) approach. The C 1s and N 1s XPS spectra, obtained at 313 K, yield a 1H/2H tautomer ratio of ca. 0.16/0.84 and 0.21/0.79, respectively.

Surzhykov, A., P. Indelicato, J. P. Santos, P. Amaro, Th Stöhlker, and S. Fritzsche. "Two-photon absorption of few-electron heavy ions." Physical Review A 84 (2011): 022511. AbstractWebsite

The two-photon absorption of few-electron ions has been studied by using second-order perturbation theory and Dirac's relativistic equation. Within this framework, the general expressions for the excitation cross sections and rates are derived including a full account of the higher-order multipole terms in the expansion of the electron-photon interaction. While these expressions can be applied to any ion, independent of its particular shell structure, detailed computations are carried out for the two-photon absorption of hydrogen-, helium-, and berylliumlike ions and are compared with the available theoretical and experimental data. The importance of relativistic and nondipole effects in the analysis and computation of induced two-photon transitions is pointed out. Moreover, we discuss the potential of these transitions for atomic parity-violation studies in the high-Z domain.

Surzhykov, A., P. Indelicato, J. P. Santos, P. Amaro, Th Stöhlker, and S. Fritzsche. "Two-photon absorption of few-electron heavy ions." Physical Review A 84 (2011): 022511. AbstractWebsite

The two-photon absorption of few-electron ions has been studied by using second-order perturbation theory and Dirac's relativistic equation. Within this framework, the general expressions for the excitation cross sections and rates are derived including a full account of the higher-order multipole terms in the expansion of the electron-photon interaction. While these expressions can be applied to any ion, independent of its particular shell structure, detailed computations are carried out for the two-photon absorption of hydrogen-, helium-, and berylliumlike ions and are compared with the available theoretical and experimental data. The importance of relativistic and nondipole effects in the analysis and computation of induced two-photon transitions is pointed out. Moreover, we discuss the potential of these transitions for atomic parity-violation studies in the high-Z domain.

Guimarães, D., J. P. Santos, M. L. Carvalho, G. Vale, H. M. Santos, V. Geraldes, I. Rocha, and J. L. Capelo. "Ultrasonic energy as a tool to overcome some drawbacks in the determination of lead in brain tissue and urine of rats." Talanta 86 (2011): 442-446 . AbstractWebsite

An ultrasonic assisted solid‚Äìliquid extraction method was developed to determine the level of lead in the brain and urine of rats. Lead was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with longitudinal-Zeeman background correction. Several analytical drawbacks were addressed and overcome, namely small brain sample mass and the formation of precipitate in the urine samples. Utrasonication provided by an ultrasonic probe succeeded in extracting lead from brain samples. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the formation of a precipitate lowered the lead content in the liquid phase of the urine. Lead was back extracted from the precipitate to the liquid phase with the aid of ultrasonic energy and acidifying the urine with 10% v/v nitric acid. A microwave-assisted acid digestion protocol was used to check the completeness of the lead extraction. The within bath and between bath precision was 5% (n = 9) and 7% (n = 3) respectively. The limit of quantification was 1.05 Œºg g‚àí1 for brain samples and 2.1 Œºg L‚àí1 for urine samples. A total of 6 samples of urine and 12 samples of brain from control rats and another 6 samples of urine and 12 samples of brain from rats fed with tap water rich in lead acetate were used in this research. Lead levels in brain and urine from exposed rats ranged from1.9 ¬± 0.2 Œºg g‚àí1 to 3.5 ¬± 0.2 Œºg g‚àí1 and from 752 ¬± 56 Œºg L‚àí1 to 60.9 ¬± 1.2 mg L‚àí1 respectively. Statistically significant differences of levels of lead in brain and urine were found between exposed and non exposed rats.

Guimarães, D., J. P. Santos, M. L. Carvalho, G. Vale, H. M. Santos, V. Geraldes, I. Rocha, and J. L. Capelo. "Ultrasonic energy as a tool to overcome some drawbacks in the determination of lead in brain tissue and urine of rats." Talanta 86 (2011): 442-446. AbstractWebsite

An ultrasonic assisted solid‚Äìliquid extraction method was developed to determine the level of lead in the brain and urine of rats. Lead was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with longitudinal-Zeeman background correction. Several analytical drawbacks were addressed and overcome, namely small brain sample mass and the formation of precipitate in the urine samples. Utrasonication provided by an ultrasonic probe succeeded in extracting lead from brain samples. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the formation of a precipitate lowered the lead content in the liquid phase of the urine. Lead was back extracted from the precipitate to the liquid phase with the aid of ultrasonic energy and acidifying the urine with 10% v/v nitric acid. A microwave-assisted acid digestion protocol was used to check the completeness of the lead extraction. The within bath and between bath precision was 5% (n = 9) and 7% (n = 3) respectively. The limit of quantification was 1.05 Œºg g‚àí1 for brain samples and 2.1 Œºg L‚àí1 for urine samples. A total of 6 samples of urine and 12 samples of brain from control rats and another 6 samples of urine and 12 samples of brain from rats fed with tap water rich in lead acetate were used in this research. Lead levels in brain and urine from exposed rats ranged from1.9 ¬± 0.2 Œºg g‚àí1 to 3.5 ¬± 0.2 Œºg g‚àí1 and from 752 ¬± 56 Œºg L‚àí1 to 60.9 ¬± 1.2 mg L‚àí1 respectively. Statistically significant differences of levels of lead in brain and urine were found between exposed and non exposed rats.

2010
Surzhykov, A., A. Volotka, F. Fratini, J. P. Santos, P. Indelicato, G. Plunien, Th Stöhlker, and S. Fritzsche. "Angular correlations in the two-photon decay of heliumlike heavy ions." Physical Review A 81 (2010): 042510. AbstractWebsite
The two-photon decay of heavy, helium-like ions is investigated based on second-order perturbation theory and Dirac’s relativistic equation. Special attention has been paid to the angular emission of the two photons (i.e., how the angular correlation function depends on the shell structure of the ions in their initial and final states). Moreover, the effects from the (electric and magnetic) nondipole terms in the expansion of the electron-photon interaction are discussed. Detailed calculations have been carried out for the two-photon decay of the 1s2s1S0, 1s2s3S1, and 1s2p3P0 states of helium-like Xe52+, Au77+, and U90+ ions.
Surzhykov, A., A. Volotka, F. Fratini, J. P. Santos, P. Indelicato, G. Plunien, Th Stöhlker, and S. Fritzsche. "Angular correlations in the two-photon decay of heliumlike heavy ions." Physical Review A 81 (2010): 042510. AbstractWebsite

The two-photon decay of heavy, helium-like ions is investigated based on second-order perturbation theory and Dirac’s relativistic equation. Special attention has been paid to the angular emission of the two photons (i.e., how the angular correlation function depends on the shell structure of the ions in their initial and final states). Moreover, the effects from the (electric and magnetic) nondipole terms in the expansion of the electron-photon interaction are discussed. Detailed calculations have been carried out for the two-photon decay of the 1s2s1S0, 1s2s3S1, and 1s2p3P0 states of helium-like Xe52+, Au77+, and U90+ ions.

Pinto, R. M., A. A. Dias, M. L. Costa, and J. P. Santos. "Computational study on the ionization energies of benzyl azide and its methyl derivatives." Journal of Molecular Structure: THEOCHEM 948 (2010): 15-20. AbstractWebsite
Ionization energies of benzyl azide (BA), C6H5CH2N3, its methyl derivatives, 2-, 3- and 4-methyl benzyl azide and (1-azidoethyl)benzene (2-, 3- and 4-MBA and 1-AEB), (CH3)C6H4CH2 N3, have been calculated with several basis sets, with M¯ller-Plesset and Hartree-Fock methods. The data are compared to the ionizations energies obtained from HeI photoelectron spectroscopy (UVPES) experiments, in order to support the correct assignment of the bands. The nature and character of the molecular orbitals are also discussed.
Pinto, R. M., A. A. Dias, M. L. Costa, and J. P. Santos. "Computational study on the ionization energies of benzyl azide and its methyl derivatives." Journal of Molecular Structure: THEOCHEM 948 (2010): 15-20. AbstractWebsite

Ionization energies of benzyl azide (BA), C6H5CH2N3, its methyl derivatives, 2-, 3- and 4-methyl benzyl azide and (1-azidoethyl)benzene (2-, 3- and 4-MBA and 1-AEB), (CH3)C6H4CH2 N3, have been calculated with several basis sets, with M¯ller-Plesset and Hartree-Fock methods. The data are compared to the ionizations energies obtained from HeI photoelectron spectroscopy (UVPES) experiments, in order to support the correct assignment of the bands. The nature and character of the molecular orbitals are also discussed.

Pinto, R. M., R. I. Olariu, J. Lameiras, F. T. Martins, A. A. Dias, G. J. Langley, P. Rodrigues, C. D. Maycock, J. P. Santos, M. F. Duarte, M. T. Fernandez, and M. L. Costa. "Study of selected benzyl azides by UV photoelectron spectroscopy and mass spectrometry." Journal of Molecular Structure 980 (2010): 163-171. AbstractWebsite
Benzyl azide and the three methylbenzyl azides were synthesized and characterized by mass spectrometry (MS) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UVPES). The electron ionization fragmentation mechanisms for benzyl azide and their methyl derivatives were studied by accurate mass measurements and linked scans at constant B/E. For benzyl azide, in order to clarify the fragmentation mechanism, labelling experiments were performed. From the mass analysis of methylbenzyl azides isomers it was possible to differentiate the isomers ortho, meta and para. The abundance and nature of the ions resulting from the molecular ion fragmentation, for the three distinct isomers of substituted benzyl azides, were rationalized in terms of the electronic properties of the substituent. Concerning the para-isomer, IRC calculations were performed at UHF/6-31G(d) level. The photoionization study of benzyl azide, with He(I) radiation, revealed five bands in the 8-21 eV ionization energies region. From every photoelectron spectrum of methylbenzyl azides isomers it has been identified seven bands, on the same range as the benzyl azide. Interpretation of the photoelectron spectra was accomplished applying Koopmans' theorem to the SCF orbital energies obtained at HF/6-311++G(d, p) level.
Pinto, R. M., R. I. Olariu, J. Lameiras, F. T. Martins, A. A. Dias, G. J. Langley, P. Rodrigues, C. D. Maycock, J. P. Santos, M. F. Duarte, M. T. Fernandez, and M. L. Costa. "Study of selected benzyl azides by UV photoelectron spectroscopy and mass spectrometry." Journal of Molecular Structure 980 (2010): 163-171. AbstractWebsite

Benzyl azide and the three methylbenzyl azides were synthesized and characterized by mass spectrometry (MS) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UVPES). The electron ionization fragmentation mechanisms for benzyl azide and their methyl derivatives were studied by accurate mass measurements and linked scans at constant B/E. For benzyl azide, in order to clarify the fragmentation mechanism, labelling experiments were performed. From the mass analysis of methylbenzyl azides isomers it was possible to differentiate the isomers ortho, meta and para. The abundance and nature of the ions resulting from the molecular ion fragmentation, for the three distinct isomers of substituted benzyl azides, were rationalized in terms of the electronic properties of the substituent. Concerning the para-isomer, IRC calculations were performed at UHF/6-31G(d) level. The photoionization study of benzyl azide, with He(I) radiation, revealed five bands in the 8-21 eV ionization energies region. From every photoelectron spectrum of methylbenzyl azides isomers it has been identified seven bands, on the same range as the benzyl azide. Interpretation of the photoelectron spectra was accomplished applying Koopmans' theorem to the SCF orbital energies obtained at HF/6-311++G(d, p) level.